Behistun Inscription, Column 1

Behistun Inscription, Column 1


The Inscription of Darius

Excerpt from "Records Of The Past," Vol. 1, pages 109-132 Samuel Bagster & Sons, London, 1875 Translated by Henry Rawlinson

Introduction:

The editor of Records Of The Past comments, “The great triumphal tablet of Darius Hystaspes, exhibiting the figures of the victorious king and his attendants and of ten vanquished chiefs, and accompanied by a record in three languages, which extends to nearly a thousand lines of Cuneiform writing, is engraved on the face of a precipitous rock at Behistun near the town of Kermanshah on the Western frontiers of Media.” (p.109)

The Bible Research Handbook, published in 1972 by the Covenant Publishing Company (recently reprinted) has this to say, “The rock carries on its face an important cuneiform inscription of Darius Hystaspes (Darius the Great). This inscription, which was cut circa 516 B.C., records in three languages – Persian, Susian (Median), and Babylonian – the names of twenty-three provinces subject to him. In the Persian and Susian versions one of these provinces is called Scythia, the root of which is, phonetically, Sak. In the Babylonian text this province is called “(matu) Gi-mi-ri”, translated “land of the Cimmerians.” Sir Henry Rawlinson, who first copied and translated the inscription – although not disposed definitely to identify these Gimiri with the Cimmerians (Kimmerii or Cumri) – was prepared to accept the probability of a connection between them. The Behistun Rock inscription establishes that the Sacae lived in the land of the Cimmerians (modern north-west Persia) and that they formed part of the agglomeration of peoples known to the ancients as Scythians (or Skythians or Skuths).” (Bible Research Handbook, Volume II, Serial 572.9355)

As discussed by Mr. W.H. Bennett in the main body of this book, we find the House of Israel referred to in Scripture as the House of Isaac or Saka, and known to popular history as the Scythians who overspread Europe. They are called Sacae, Sacan, and Sacians in the following translation of Darius’ inscription.

The importance of the Behistun Rock is that it connects the people known in Persian and Median as Sakaor Scythians, the House of Isaac or Israelites, with the tribes known in Babylonian as Cimmerian or Gimiri. The Bible Research Handbook also points out that, “The name ‘Gimiri’ …is phonetically close to ‘Khumri’, the name by which the Ten Tribes were known to the Assyrians… According to [Assyrian scholar] Pinches the kh was pronounced -g.”

To summarize, it is a well-proven factthat the people known in Assyrian as Khumri (which is phonetically the same as Gimirior Cimmerian) were the House of Israel. (see Appendix 2) The Behistun Rock further proves that these ‘Gimiri’ were the same people as the ‘Saka’ (which is phonetically the same as both ‘Isaac’ and ‘Scythians’). Therefore, all five of these ancient tribal names, Saka, Scythian, Cimmerian, Gimiri, and Khumri are identified as Israelites, as they were known in other languages. Following is an important excerpt from Darius’ long inscription.

KEY NAMES:

Assyrian name for Israel on Shalmaneser’s Black Obelisk was Khumri

Babylonian equivalent pronounced similar to Assyrian Khumri was Gimiri

Behistun Rock inscription identifies the people called Gimiri as the Sak or Sacae

Bible refers to Israel as the House of Isaac, phonetic equivalent to Sak or Sacae

Historians identify the Sak or Sacae who overspread Europe as the Scythians

Historians identify the Gimiri who overspread Europe as the Cimmerians

The ancient words of Darius on the Behistun Rock Translation of the Inscription

I am Darius, the great King, the King of Kings, the King of Persia, the King of the provinces, the son of Hystaspes, the grandson of Arsames, the Achaemenian.

Says Darius the King: My father was Hystaspes of Hystaspes the father was Arsames of Arsames the father was Ariyaramnes of Ariyaramnes the father was Teispes of Teispes the father was Achaemenes.

Says Darius the King: On that account we are called Achaemenians from antiquity we have descended from antiquity those of our race have been Kings.

Says Darius the King: There are eight of my race who have been Kings before me, I am the ninth for a very long time we have been Kings.

Says Darius the King: By the grace of Ormazd I am King Ormazd has granted me the empire.

Says Darius the King: These are the countries which belong to me, by the grace of Ormazd I have become King of them, Persia, Susiana, Babylonia, Assyria, Arabia, Egypt, those which are of the sea, Sparta, Ionia, Media, Armenia, Cappadocia, Parthia, Zarangia, Aria, Chorasmia, Bactria, Sogdiana, Gandara, the Sacae, the Satagydes, Arachosia, and Mecia, in all twenty-three countries.

Says Darius the King: These are the countries which belong to me by the grace of Ormazd they have become subject to me, they have brought tribute to me. That which has been said unto them by me, both by night and by day it has been performed by them.

Says Darius the King: Within these countries whoever was good, him have I cherished and protected whoever was evil, him have I utterly destroyed. By the grace of Ormazd these countries have obeyed my laws. As to them it has been said by me, thus has it been done by them.

Says Darius the King: Ormazd granted me the empire. Ormazd brought help to me so that I gained this empire. By the grace of Ormazd I hold this empire.

Says Darius the King: This is what was done by me, before I became King. He who was named Cambyses the son of Cyrus of our race, he was here King before me. There was of that Cambyses a brother named Bardes he was of the same father and mother as Cambyses. Afterwards Cambyses slew this Bardes. When Cambyses slew Bardes it was not known to the state that Bardes was killed. Then Cambyses proceeded to Egypt. When Cambyses had gone to Egypt, the state became wicked then the lie became abounding in the land, both in Persia and in Media, and in the other provinces.

Says Darius the King: Afterwards there was a certain man, a Magian, named Gomates. He arose from Pissiachada, the mountain named Arakadres, from thence on the 14th day of the month Viyakhana then it was that he arose. To the state he thus falsely declared: “I am Bardes the son of Cyrus, the brother of Cambyses.” Then the whole state became rebellious from Cambyses it went over to him, both Persia and Media, and the other provinces. He seized the empire on the 9th day of the month Garmapada [the 5th month], then it was he thus seized the empire. Afterwards Cambyses killing himself died.

Says Darius the King: The empire, of which Gomates, the Magian, dispossessed Cambyses, that empire had been in our family from the olden time. After Gomates the Magian had dispossessed Cambyses of Persia and Media and the dependent provinces, he acted with his own party, he became king.

Says Darius the King: There was not a man, neither Persian, nor Median, nor any one of our family, who could dispossess of the empire that Gomates, the Magian. The state feared him exceedingly. He slew many people who had known the old Bardes for that reason he slew the people “Lest they should recognize me that I am not Bardes the son of Cyrus.” There was not any one bold enough to say aught against Gomates the Magian until I arrived. Then I prayed to Ormazd Ormazd brought help to me. On the 10th day of the month Bagayadish [first month] then it was, with my faithful men I slew that Gomates, the Magian and the chief men who were his followers. The fort named Sictachotes, in the district of Media, named Nisaea, there I slew him I dispossessed him of the empire. By the grace of Ormazd I became King Ormazd granted me the scepter.

Says Darius the King: The empire that had been wrested from our race, that I recovered, I established it in its place as in the days of old thus I did . The temples which Gomates the Magian had destroyed, I rebuilt I reinstituted for the state the sacred chaunts and (sacrificial) worship, and confided them to the families which Gomates the Magian had deprived of those offices. I established the kingdom in its place, both Persia and Media, and the other provinces as in the days of old thus I restored that which had been taken away. By the grace of Ormazd I did this. I laboured until I had established our family in its place as in the days of old. I laboured, by the grace of Ormazd, (in order) that Gomates the Magian might not supersede our family.

Says Darius the King: That is that which I did after that I became king.

Says Darius the King: When I had slain Gomates the Magian, then a certain man, named Atrines, the son of Opadarmes, he arose to the state of Susiana he thus said: “I am King of Susiana.” Then the people of Susiana became rebellious they went over to that Atrines he became King of Susiana. And a certain man, a Babylonian, named Nadinta-belus the son of Aenares, he arose. The state of Babylonia he thus falsely addressed: “I am Nabochodrossor the son of Nabonidus.” Then the entire Babylonian state went over to that Nadinta-belus. Babylon became rebellious. He seized the government of Babylonia.

Says Darius the King: Then I sent to Susiana that Atrines was brought to me a prisoner. I slew him.

Says Darius the King: Then I proceeded to Babylon against that Nadinta-belus, who was called Nabochodrossor. The forces of Nadinta-belus held the Tigris there they had come, and they had boats. Then I divided my army one portion I supplied with camels the other I mounted on horses Ormazd brought help to me by the grace of Ormazd I succeeded in passing the Tigris. Then I entirely defeated the army of that Nadinta-belus. On the 27 th day of the month of Atriyatiya [9 th month] then it was that we thus fought.

Says Darius the King: Then I marched against Babylon. When I arrived near Babylon, the city named Zazana, upon the Euphrates, there that Nadinta-belus who was called Nabochodrossor, came with a force before me offering battle. Then we fought a battle. Ormazd brought help to me by the grace of Ormazd, I entirely defeated the force of Nadinta-belus. A part of the army was driven into the water the water destroyed them. On the 2 nd day of the month Anamaka [10 th month], then it was that we thus fought the battle.

[End of Column No. 1, which extends to ninety-six lines, and the writing of which is generally in good preservation.]

Says Darius the King: Then Nadinta-belus with a few horsemen fled to Babylon. Then I proceeded to Babylon I both took Babylon and seized that Nadinta-belus. Afterwards I slew that Nadinta-belus at Babylon.

Says Darius the King: Whilst I was at Babylon these are the countries which revolted against me: Persis, Susiana, Media, Assyria, Armenia, Parthia, Margiana, Sattagydia, and Sacia

A. Repetition of the first four paragraphs of Column 1 above.

B. Tablet attached to the prostrate figure on which the victor King tramples:
“This Gomates, the Magian, was an imposter he thus declared, ‘I am Bardes, the son of Cyrus. I am the King.’”

C. Adjoining the first standing figure:

“This Atrines was an impostor he thus declared ‘I am King of Susiana.’”

D. Adjoining the second standing figure:

“This Nadinta-belus was an impostor he thus declared, ‘I am Nabochodrossor, the son of Nabonidus I am King of Babylon.’”

E. Adjoining the third standing figure:

“This Phraortes was an impostor he thus declared, ‘I am Xathrites, of the race of Cyaxares I am King of Media.’”

F. Above the fourth standing figure:

“This Martes was an impostor he thus declared, ‘I am Imanes, the King of Susiana.’”

G. Adjoining the fifth standing figure:

“This Sitratachmes was an impostor he thus declared, ‘I am King of Sagartia, of the race of Cyaxares.’”

H. Adjoining the sixth standing figure:

“This Veisdates was an impostor he thus declared, ‘I am Bardes, the son of Cyrus. I am the King.’”

I. Adjoining the seventh standing figure:

“This Aracus was an impostor he thus declared, ‘I am Nabochodrossor, the son of Nabonidus. I am the King of Babylon.’”

J. Adjoining the eighth standing fugure:

“This Phraates was an impostor he thus declared, ‘I am the King of Margiana.’”

K. Above the ninth or supplemental figure with the high cap:

“This is Sakuka, the Sacan.’”

CONCLUSION

Sir Henry Rawlinson comments on the final column above as follows: “Of the thirty-five lines which compose a supplementary half column, divided into 6 paragraphs, it is impossible to give a complete translation, one side of the tablet being entirely destroyed. From such portions as are decipherable it appears to contain an account of two other revolts one in Susiana, conducted by a man named, …..imim and the other by Saku’ka, the chief of the Sacae, who dwelt upon the Tigris.”

“We have reasonable grounds for regarding the Gimirri, or Cimmerians, who first appeared on the confines of Assyria and Media in the seventh century B.C., and the Sacae of the Behistun Rock, nearly two centuries later, as identical with the Beth-Khumree of Samaria, or the Ten Tribes of the House of Israel.”

-George Rawlinson, note in his translation of History of Herodotus, Book VII, p. 378


The inscription

The text of the inscription is a statement by Darius I of Persia, written three times in three different scripts and languages: two languages side by side, Old Persian and Elamite, and Babylonian above them. Darius ruled the Persian Empire from 521 to 486 BC. Some time around 515 BC, he arranged for the inscription of a long tale of his accession in the face of the usurper Smerdis of Persia (and Darius' subsequent successful wars and suppressions of rebellion) to be inscribed into a cliff near the modern town of Bisistun, in the foothills of the Zagros Mountains of Iran, just as one reaches them from the Kermanshah Plain.

The inscription is approximately 15 metres high by 25 metres wide, and 100 metres up a cliff from an ancient road connecting the capitals of Babylonia and Media (Babylon and Ecbatana). It is extremely inaccessible as the mountainside was removed to make the inscription more visible after its completion. The Old Persian text contains 414 lines in five columns the Elamite text includes 593 lines in eight columns and the Babylonian text is in 112 lines. The inscription was illustrated by a life-sized bas-relief of Darius, two servants, and ten one-metre figures representing conquered peoples the god Ahura Mazda floats above, giving his blessing to the king. One figure appears to have been added after the others were completed, as was (oddly enough) Darius' beard, which is a separate block of stone attached with iron pins and lead.


Behistun Inscription, Column 1 - History

In Antiquity, Bagastâna/Behistun, which means 'place where the gods dwell', was the name of a village and a remarkable, isolated rock outcrop along the road that connected the capitals of Babylonia and Media, and Ecbatana (modern Hamadan). Many travelers passed along this place, so it was the logical place for the Persian king Darius I (Darius the Great - 522-486) to proclaim his military victories.

The famous Behistun inscription was engraved on a cliff about 100 meters off the ground. Darius tells us how the supreme god Ahuramazda choose him to dethrone an usurper named Gaumâta, how he set out to quell several revolts, and how he defeated his foreign enemies

Darius the Great's, Behistun Inscription

Trilingual inscription on the face of a gorge beneath the panel of sculptures in 5 Columns.

1. (1.1-3.) I am Darius the Great King, King of Kings, King in Persia, King of countries, son of Hystaspes, grandson of Arsames, an Achaemenian.

2. (1.3-6.) Darius the King says: My father was Hystaspes Hystaspes' father was Arsames Arsames' father was Ariaramnes Ariaramnes' father was Teispes Teispes' father was Achaemenes.

3. (1.6-8.) Darius the King says: For this reason we are called Achaemenians. From long ago we have been noble. From long ago our family had been kings.

4. (1.8-11.) Darius the King says: there were 8 of our family who were kings before me I am the ninth 9 in succession we have been kings.

5. (1.11-2.) Darius the King says: By the favor of Ahuramazda I am King Ahuramazda bestowed the kingdom upon me.

6. (1.12-7.) Darius the King says: These are the countries which came to me by the favor of Ahuramazda I was king of them: Persia, Elam, Babylonia, Assyria, Arabia, Egypt, (those) who are beside the sea, Sardis, Ionia, Media, Armenia, Cappadocia, Parthia, Drangiana, Aria, Chorasmia, Bactria, Sogdiana, Gandara, Scythia, Sattagydia, Arachosia, Maka: in all, 23 provinces.

7. (1.17-20.) Darius the King says: These are the countries which came to me by the favor of Ahuramazda they were my subjects they bore tribute to me what was said to them by me either by night or by day, that was done.

8. (1.20-4.) Darius the King says: Within these countries, the man who was loyal, him I rewarded well (him) who was evil, him I punished well by the favor of Ahuramazda these countries showed respect toward my law as was said to them by me, thus was it done.

9. (1.24-26.) Darius the King says: Ahuramazda bestowed the kingdom upon me Ahuramazda bore me aid until I got possession of this kingdom by the favor of Ahuramazda I hold this kingdom.

10. (1.26-35.) Darius the King says: This is what was done by me after I became king. A son of Cyrus, Cambyses by name, of our family -- he was king here of that Cambyses there was a brother, Smerdis by name, having the same mother and the same father as Cambyses. Afterwards, Cambyses slew that Smerdis. When Cambyses slew Smerdis, it did not become known to the people that Smerdis had been slain. Afterwards, Cambyses went to Egypt. When Cambyses had gone off to Egypt, after that the people became evil. After that the Lie waxed great in the country, both in Persia and in Media and in the other provinces.

11. (1.35-43.) Darius the King says: Afterwards, there was one man, a Magian, named Gaumata he rose up from Paishiyauvada. A mountain named Arakadri -- from there 14 days of the month Viyakhna were past when he rose up. He lied to the people thus: "I am Smerdis, the son of Cyrus, brother of Cambyses." After that, all the people became rebellious from Cambyses, (and) went over to him, both Persia and Media and the other provinces. He seized the kingdom of the month Garmapada 9 days were past, then he seized the kingdom. After that, Cambyses died by his own hand.

12. (1.43-8.) Darius the King says: This kingdom which Gaumata the Magian took away from Cambyses, this kingdom from long ago had belonged to our family. After that, Gaumata the Magian took (it) from Cambyses he took to himself both Persia and Media and the other provinces, he made (them) his own possession, he became king.

13. (1.48-61.) Darius the King says: There was not a man, neither a Persian nor a Mede nor anyone of our family, who might make that Gaumata the Magian deprived of the kingdom. The people feared him greatly, (thinking that) he would slay in numbers the people who previously had known Smerdis for this reason he would slay the people, "lest they know me, that I am not Smerdis the son of Cyrus." Nobody dared say anything about Gaumata the Magian, until I came. After that I sought help of Ahuramazda Ahuramazda bore me aid of the month Bagayadi 10 days were past, then I with a few men slew that Gaumata the Magian, and those who were his foremost followers. A fortress named Sikayauvati, a district named Nisaya, in Media -- here I slew him. I took the kingdom from him. By the favor of Ahuramazda I became king Ahuramazda bestowed the kingdom upon me.

14. (1.61-71.) Darius the King says: The kingdom which had been taken away from our family, that I put in its Place I reestablished it on its foundation. As before, so I made the sanctuaries which Gaumata the Magian destroyed. I restored to the people the pastures and the herds, the household slaves and the houses which Gaumata the Magian took away from them. I reestablished the people on its foundation, both Persia and Media and the other provinces. As before, so I brought back what had been taken away. By the favor of Ahuramazda this I did: I strove until I reestablished our royal house on its foundation as (it was) before. So I strove, by the favor of Ahuramazda, so that Gaumata the Magian did not remove our royal house.

15. (1.71-2.) Darius the King says: This is what I did after I became king.

16. (1.72-81.) Darius the King says: When I had slain Gaumata the Magian, afterwards one man, named Asina, son of Upadarma -- he rose up in Elam. To the people he said thus: "I am king in Elam." Afterwards the Elamites became rebellious, (and) went over to that Asina he became king in Elam. And one man, a Babylonian, named Nidintu-Bel, son of Ainaira -- he rose up in Babylon thus he deceived the people: "I am Nebuchadrezzar the son of Nabonidus." Afterwards the Babylonian people all went over to that Nidintu-Bel Babylonia became rebellious he seized the kingdom in Babylon.

17. (1.81-3). Darius the King says: After that I sent (a message) to Elam. This Acina was led to me bound I slew him.

18. (1.83-90). Darius the King says: After that I went off to Babylon, against that Nidintu-Bel who called himself Nebuchadrezzar. The army of Nidintu-Bel held the Tigris there it took its stand, and on account of the waters (the Tigris) was unfordable. Thereupon (some of) my army I supported on (inflated) skins, others I made camel-borne, for others I brought horses. Ahuramazda bore me aid by the favor of Ahuramazda we got across the Tigris. There I smote that army of Nidintu-Bel exceedingly of the month Asiyadiya 26 days were past, then we fought the battle.

19. (1.90-6). Darius the King says: After that I went off to Babylon. When I had not arrived at Babylon, a town named Zazana, beside the Euphrates -- there this Nidintu-Bel who called himself Nebuchadrezzar came with an army against me, to deliver battle. Thereupon we Joined battle Ahuramazda bore me aid by the favor of Ahuramazda I smote that army of Nidintu-Bel exceedingly. The rest was thrown into the water, (and) the water carried it away. Of the month Anamaka 2 days were past, then we fought the battle.

20. (2.1-5.) Darius the King says: After that, Nidintu-Bel with a few horsemen fled he went off to Babylon. Thereupon I went to Babylon. By the favor of Ahuramazda both I seized Babylon and I took that Nidintu-Bel prisoner. After that, I slew that Nidintu-Bel at Babylon.

21. (2.5-8.) Darius the King says: While I was in Babylon, these are the provinces which became rebellious from me: Persia, Elam, Media, Assyria, Egypt, Parthia, Margiana, Sattagydia, Scythia.

22. (2.8-11.) Darius the King says: One man, named Martiya, son of Cincikhri -- a town named Kuganaka, in Persia -- there he abode. He rose up in Elam to the people thus he said, "I am Imanish, king in Elam."

23. (2.11-3.) Darius the King says: At that time I was near Elam. Thereupon the Elamites were afraid of me they seized that Martiya who was their chief, and slew him.

24. (2.13-7.) Darius the King says: One man, named Phraortes, a Median -- he rose up in Media. To the people thus he said, "I am Khshathrita, of the family of Cyaxares." Thereafter the Median army which (was) in the palace, became rebellious from me, (and) went over to that Phraortem. He became king in Media.

25. (2.18-29.) Darius the King says: The Persian and Median army which was with me, this was a small (force). Thereupon I sent forth an army. A Persian named Hydarnes, my subject -- I made him chief of them I said to them thus: "Go forth, smite that Median army which does not call itself mine!" Thereupon this Hydarnes with the army marched off. When he arrived in Media, a town named Maru, in Media -- there he joined battle with the Medes. He who was chief among the Medes, he at that time was not there. Ahuramazda bore me aid by the favor of Ahuramazda my army smote that rebellious army exceedingly. Of the month Anamaka 27 days were past, then the battle was fought by them. Thereafter this army of mine, a district named Kampanda, in Media -- there it waited for me until I arrived in Media.

26. (2.29-37.) Darius the King says: An Armenian named Dadarshi, my subject -- I sent him forth to Armenia. I said to him: "Go forth, that rebellious army which does not call itself mine, that do you smite!" Thereupon Dadarshi marched off. When he arrived in Armenia, thereafter the rebels assembled (and) came out against Dadarshi to join battle. A place named Zuzahya, in Armenia -- there they joined battle. Ahuramazda bore me aid by the favor of Ahuramazda my army smote that rebellious army exceedingly of the month Thuravahara 8 days were past, then the battle was fought by them.

27. (2.37-42.) Darius the King says: Again a second time the rebels assembled (and) came out against Dadarshi to join battle. A stronghold named Tigra, in Armenia -- there they joined battle. Ahuramazda bore me aid by the favor of Ahuramazda my army smote that rebellious army exceedingly of the month Thuravahara 18 days were past, then the battle was fought by them.

28. (2.42-9.) Darius the King says: Again a third time the rebels assembled (and) came out against Dadarshi to join battle. A fortress named Uyama, in Armenia -- there they joined battle. Ahuramazda bore me aid by the favor of Ahuramazda my army smote that rebellious army exceedingly of the month Thaigarci 9 days were past, then the battle was fought by them. Thereafter Dadarshi waited for me until I arrived in Media.

29. (2.49-57.) Darius the King says: Thereafter a Persian named Vaumisa, my subject-him I sent forth to Armenia. Thus I said to him: "Go forth the rebellious army which does not call itself mine -- smite them!" Thereupon Vaumisa marched off. When he arrived in Armenia, then the rebels assembled (and) came out against Vaumisa to join battle. A district named Izala, in Assyria -- there they joined battle. Ahuramazda bore me aid by the favor of Ahuramazda my army smote that rebellious army exceedingly of the month Anamaka 15 days were past, then the battle was fought by them.

30. (2.57-63.) Darius the King says: Again a second time the rebels assembled (and) came out against Vaumisa to join battle. A district named Autiyara, in Armenia -- there they joined battle. Ahuramazda bore me aid by the favor of Ahuramazda my army smote that rebellious army exceedingly on the last day of the month Thuravaharâthen the battle was fought by them. After that, Vaumisa waited for me in Armenia until I arrived in Media.

31. (2.64-70.) Darius the King says: Thereafter I went away from Babylon (and) arrived in Media. When I arrived in Media, a town named Kunduru, in Media -- there this Phraortes who called himself king in Media came with an army against me to join battle. Thereafter we joined battle. Ahuramazda bore me aid by the favor of Ahuramazda that army of Phraortes I smote exceedingly of the month Adukanaisha 25 days were past, then we fought the battle.

32. (2.70-8.) Darius the King says: Thereafter this Phraortes with a few horsemen fled a district named Raga, in Media -- along there he went off. Thereafter I sent an army in pursuit Phraortes, seized, was led to me. I cut off his nose and ears and tongue, and put out one eye he was kept bound at my palace entrance, all the people saw him. Afterward I impaled him at Ecbatana and the men who were his foremost followers, those at Ecbatana within the fortress I (flayed and) hung out (their hides, stuffed with straw).

33. (2.78-91.) Darius the King says: One man named Cisantakhma, a Sagartian -- he became rebellious to me thus he said to the people, "I am king in Sagartia, of the family of Cyaxares." Thereupon I sent off a Persian and Median army a Mede named Takhmaspada, my subject -- I made him chief of them. I said to them thus: "Go forth the hostile army which shall not call itself mine, and smite them!" Thereupon Takhmaspada with the army went off he joined battle with Cisantakhma. Ahuramazda bore me aid by the favor of Ahuramazda my army smote that rebellious army and took Cisantakhma prisoner, (and) led him to me. Afterwards I cut off both his nose and ears, and put out one eye, he was kept bound at my palace entrance, all the people saw him. Afterwards I impaled him at Arbela.

34. (2.91-2.) Darius the King says: This is what was done by me in Media.

35. (2.92-8.) Darius the King says: Parthia and Hyrcania became rebellious from me, called themselves (adherents) of Phraortes. Hystaspes my father -- he was in Parthia him the people abandoned, became rebellious. Thereupon Hystaspes went forth with the army which was faithful to him. A town named Vishpauzati, in Parthia -- there he joined battle with the Parthians. Ahuramazda bore me aid by the favor of Ahuramazda Hystaspes smote that rebellious army exceedingly of the month Viyakhna 22 days were past -- then the battle was fought by them.

36. (3.1-9.) Darius the King says: After that I sent forth a Persian army to Hystaspes, from Raga. When this army came to Hystaspes, thereupon Hystaspes took that army (and) marched out. A town by name Patigrabana, in Parthia - there he joined battle with the rebels. Ahuramazda bore me aid by the favor of Ahuramazda Hystaspes smote that rebellious army exceedingly of the month Garmapada 1 day was past -- then the battle was fought by them.
37. (3.9-10.) Darius the King says: After that the province became mine. This is what was done by me in Parthia.

38. (3.10-9.) Darius the King says: A province named Margiana -- it became rebellious to me. One man named Frada, a Margian -- him they made chief. Thereupon I sent forth against him a Persian named Dadarshi, my subject, satrap in Bactria. Thus I said to him: "Go forth, smite that army which does not call itself mine!" After that, Dadarshi marched out with the army he joined battle with the Margians. Ahuramazda bore me aid by the favor of Ahuramazda my army smote that rebellious army exceedingly of the month Asiyadiya 23 days were past -- then the battle was fought by them.

39. (3.19-21.) Darius the King says: After that the province became mine. This is what was done by me in Bactria.

40. (3.21-8.) Darius the King says: One man named Vahyazdata -- a town named Tarava, a district named Yautiya, in Persia -- there he abode. He made the second uprising in Persia. To the people he said thus: "I am Smerdis, the son of Cyrus." Thereupon the Persian army which (was) in the palace, (having come) from Anshan previously -- it became rebellious from me, went over to that Vahyazdata. He became king in Persia.

41. (3.28-40.) Darius the King says: Thereupon I sent forth the Persian and Median army which was by me. A Persian named Artavardiya, my subject -- I made him chief of them. The rest of the Persian army went forth behind me to Media. Thereupon Artavardiya with his army went forth to Persia. When he arrived in Persia, a town named Rakha, in Persia -- there this Vahyazdata who called himself Smerdis came with his army against Artavardiya, to join battle. Thereupon they joined battle. Ahuramazda bore me aid by the favor of Ahuramazda my army smote that army of Vahyazdata exceedingly of the month Thuravahara 12 days were past -- then the battle was fought by them.

42. (3.40-9.) Darius the King says: After that, this Vahyazdata with a few horsemen fled he went off to Paishiyauvada. From there he got an army later he came against Artavardiya to join battle. A mountain named Parga -- there they joined battle. Ahuramazda bore me aid by the favor of Ahuramazda my army smote that army of Vahyasdata exceedingly of the month Garmapada 5 days were past -- then the battle was fought by them, and that Vahyazdata they took prisoner, and those who were his foremost followers they captured.

43. (3.49-52.) Darius the King says: After that I took that Vahyazdata and those who were his foremost followers -- a town named Uvadaicaya, in Persia -- there I impaled them.

44. (3.52-3.) Darius the King says: This is what was done by me in Persia.

45. (3.54-64.) The King says: This Vahyazdata who called himself Smerdis had sent an army to Arachosia -- a Persian named Vivana, my subject, satrap in Arachosia -- against him and he had made one man their chief. Thus he said to them: "Go forth smite Vivana and that army which calls itself King Darius's!" Thereupon this army marched off, which Vahyazdata had sent forth against Vivana to join battle. A fortress named Kapishakani -- there they joined battle. Ahuramazda bore me aid by the favor of Ahuramazda my army smote that rebellious army exceedingly of the month Anamaka 13 days were past -- then the battle was fought by them.

46. (3.64-9.) Darius the King says: Again later the rebels assembled (and) came out against Vivana to join battle. A district named Gandutava -- there they joined battle. Ahuramazda bore me aid by the favor of Ahuramazda my army smote that rebellious army exceedingly of the month Viyakhna 7 days were past -- then the battle was fought by them.

47. (3.69-75.) Darius the King says: After that, this man who was the chief of that army which Vahyazdata had sent forth against Vivana -- he fled with a few horsemen (and) got away. A fortress named Arshada, in Arachosia -- past that he went. Afterwards Vivana with his army went off in pursuit of them there he took him prisoner and the men who were his foremost followers, (and) slew (them).

48. (3.75-6.) Darius the King says: After that the province became mine. This is what was done by me in Arachosia.

49. (3.76-83.) Darius the King says: While I was in Persia and Media, again a second time the Babylonians became rebellious from me. One man named Arkha, an Armenian, son of Haldita -- he rose up in Babylon. A district named Dubala -- from there he thus lied to the people: "I am Nebuchadrezzar the son of Nabonidus." Thereupon the Babylonian people became rebellious from me, (and) went over to that Arkha. He seized Babylon he became king in Babylon.

50. (3.83-92.) Darius the King says: Thereupon I sent forth an army to Babylon. A Persian named Intaphernes, my subject -- him I made chief of them. Thus I said to them: "Go forth that Babylonian army smite, which shall not call itself mine!" Thereupon Intaphernes with the army marched off to Babylon. Ahuramazda bore me aid by the favor of Ahuramazda Intaphernes smote the Babylonians and led them in bonds of the month Varkazana 22 days were past -- then that Arkha who falsely called himself Nebuchadrezzar and the men who were his foremost followers he took prisoner. I issued an order: this Arkha and the men who were his foremost followers were impaled at Babylon.

51. (4.1-2.) Darius the King says: This is what was done by me in Babylon.

52. (4.2-31.) Darius the King says: This is what I did by the favor of Ahuramazda in one and the same year after that I became king. 19 battles I fought by the favor of Ahuramazda I smote them and took prisoner 9 kings. One was named Gaumata, a Magian lied and said, "I am Smerdis, the son of Cyrus" he made Persia rebellious. One, named Asina, an Elamite lied and said, "I am king in Elam" he made Elam rebellious to me. One, named Nidintu-Bel, a Babylonian lied and said, "I am Nebuchadrezzar, the son of Nabonidus he made Babylon rebellious. One, named Martiya, a Persian lied and said, "I am Imanish, king in Elam" he made Elam rebellious. One, named Phraortes, a Mede lied and said, "I am Khshathrita, of the family of Cyaxares" he made Media rebellious. One named Cisantakhma, a Sagartian lied and said, "I am king in Sagartia, of the family of Cyaxares" he made Sagartia rebellious. One, named Frada, a Margian lied and said, "I am king in Margiana" he made Margiana rebellious. One, named Vahyazdata, a Persian lied and said, "I am Smerdis, the son of Cyrus" he made Persia rebellious. One, named Arkha, an Armenian lied and said: "I am Nebuchadrezzar, the son of Nabonidus" he made Babylon rebellious.

53. (4.31-2.) Darius the King says: These 9 kings I took prisoner within these battles.

54. (4.33-6.) Darius the King says: These are the provinces which became rebellious. The Lie (druj) made them rebellious, so that these (men) deceived the people. Afterwards Ahuramazda put them into my hand as was my desire, so I did to them.

55. (4.36-40.). Darius the King says: You who shall be king hereafter, protect yourself vigorously from the Lie the man who shall be a Lie-follower, him do you punish well, if thus you shall think, "May my country be secure!"

56. (4.40-3.) Darius the King says: This is what I did by the favor of Ahuramazda, in one and the same year I did (it). You who shall hereafter read this inscription let that which has been done by me convince you do not think it a lie.

57. (4.13-5.) Darius the King says: I turn myself quickly to Ahuramazda, that this (is) true, not false, (which) I did in one and the same year.

58. (4.45-50.) Darius the King says: By the favor of Ahuramazda and of me much else was done that has not been inscribed in this inscription for this reason it has not been inscribed, lest whoso shall hereafter read this inscription, to him what has been done by me seem excessive, (and) it not convince him, (but) he think it false.

59. (4.50-2.) Darius the King says: Those who were the former kings, as long as they lived, by them was not done thus as by the favor of Ahuramazda was done by me in one and the same year.

60. (4.52-6.) Darius the King says: Now let that which has been done by me convince you thus to the people impart, do not conceal it: if this record you shall not conceal, (but) tell it to the people, may Ahuramazda he a friend to you, and may family be to you in abundance, and may you live long!

61. (4.57-9.) Darius the King says: If this record you shall conceal, (and) not tell it to the people, may Ahuramazda be a smiter to you, and may family not be to you!

62. (4.59-61.) Darius the King says: This which I did, in one and the same year by the favor of Ahuramazda I did Ahuramazda bore me aid, and the other gods who are.

63. (4.61-7.) Darius the King says: For this reason Ahuramazda bore aid, and the other gods who are, because I was not hostile, I was not a Lie-follower, I was not a doer of wrong -- neither I nor my family. According to righteousness I conducted myself. Neither to the weak nor to the powerful did I do wrong. The man who cooperated with my house, him I rewarded well whoso did injury, him I punished well.

64. (4.67-9.) Darius the King says: You who shall be king hereafter, the man who shall be a Lie-follower or who shall be a doer of wrong -- to them do not be a friend, (but) punish them well.

65. (4.69-72.) Darius the King says: You who shall thereafter behold this inscription which I have inscribed, or these sculptures, do not destroy them, (but) thence onward protect them, as long as you shall be in good strength!

66. (4.72-6.) Darius the King says: If you shall behold this inscription or these sculptures, (and) shall not destroy them and shall protect them as long as to you there is strength, may Ahuramazda be a friend to you, and may family be to you in abundance, and may you live long, and what you shall do, that may Ahuramazda make successful for you!

67. (4.76-80.) Darius the King says: If you shall behold this inscription or these sculptures, (and) shall destroy them and shall not protect them as long as to you there is strength, may Ahuramazda be a smiter to you, and may family not be to you, and what you shall do, that for you may Ahuramazda utterly destroy!

68. (4.80-6.) Darius the King says: These are the men who were there at the time when I slew Gaumata the Magian who called himself Smerdis at that time these men cooperated as my followers: Intaphernes by name, son of Vayaspara, a Persian Otanes by name, son of Thukhra, a Persian Gobryas by name, son of Mardonius, a Persian Hydarnes by name, son of Bagabigna, a Persian Megabyzus by name, son of Datuvahya, a Persian Ardumanish by name, son of Vahauka, a Persian.

69. (4.86-8.) Darius the King says: You who shall be king hereafter, protect well the family of these men.

70. (4.88-92.) Darius the King says: By the favor of Ahuramazda this is the inscription which I made. Besides, it was in Aryan, and on clay tablets and on parchment it was composed. Besides, a sculptured figure of myself I made. Besides, I made my lineage. And it was inscribed and was read off before me. Afterwards this inscription I sent off everywhere among the provinces. The people unitedly worked upon it.

71. (5.1-14.) Darius the King says: This is what I did in both the second and the third year after I became king. A province named Elam became rebellious. One man named Atamaita, an Elamite -- they made him chief. Thereupon I sent forth an army. One man named Gobryas, a Persian, my subject -- I made him chief of them. After that, Gobryas with the army marched off to Elam he joined battle with the Elamites. Thereupon Gobryas smote and crushed the Elamites, and captured the chief of them he led him to me, and I killed him. After that the province became mine.
72. (5.14-7.) Darius the King says: Those Elamites were faithless and by them Ahuramazda was not worshipped. I worshipped Ahuramazda by the favor of Ahuramazda, as was my desire, thus I did to them.

73. (5.18-20.) Darius the King says: Whoso shall worship Ahuramazda, divine blessing will be upon him, both (while) living and (when) dead.

74. (5.20-30.) Darius the King says: Afterwards with an army I went off to Scythia, after the Scythians who wear the pointed cap. These Scythians went from me. When I arrived at the sea, beyond it then with all my army I crossed. Afterwards, I smote the Scythians exceedingly another (leader) I took captive this one was led bound to me, and I slew him. The chief of them, by name Skunkha -- him they seized and led to me. Then I made another their chief, as was my desire. After that, the province became mine.

75. (5.30-3.) Darius the King says: Those Scythians. (= DB 5.15-7).

Other Persian Inscriptions.

Ariaramnes at Hamadan. Slightly incomplete text on gold tablet.

1. (1-4). Ariaramnes, the Great King, King of Kings, King in Persia, son of Teispes the King, grandson of Achaemenes.

2. (4-9). Ariaramnes the King says: This country Persia which I hold, which is possessed of good horses, of good men, the Great God Ahuramazda bestowed it upon me. By the favor of Ahuramazda I am king in this country.

3. (9-11). Ariaramnes the King says: May Ahuramazda bear me aid.

Arsames at Hamadan. OP text on gold tablet, lower right corner missing.

1. (1-4). Arsames, the Great King, King of Kings, King (in) Persia, son (of) Ariaramnes the King, an Achaemenian.

2. (5-14). Arsames the King says: Ahuramazda, great god, the greatest of gods, made me king. He bestowed on me the land Persia, with good people, with good horses. By the favor of Ahuramazda I hold this land. May Ahuramazda protect me, and my royal house, and may he protect this land which I hold.

DARIUS, PERSEPOLIS D. (DPd) OP only on south retaining wall of palace.

1. (1-5.) Great Ahuramazda, the greatest of gods -- he created Darius the King, he bestowed on him the kingdom by the favor of Ahuramazda Darius is King.

2. (5-12.) Darius the King says: This country Persia which Ahuramazda bestowed upon me, good, possessed of good horses, possessed of good men -- by the favor of Ahuramazda and of me, Darius the King, does not feel fear of (any) other.

3. (12-24.) Darius the King says: May Ahuramazda bear me aid, with the gods of the royal house and may Ahuramazda protect this country from a (hostile) army, from famine, from the Lie! Upon this country may there not come an army, nor famine, nor the Lie this I pray as a boon from Ahuramazda together with the gods of the royal house. This boon may Ahuramazda together with the gods of the royal house give to me!

DARIUS, PERSEPOLIS E. (DPe) OP only on south retaining wall of palace.

1. (1-5.) I am Darius the Great King, King of Kings, King of many countries, son of Hystaspes, an Achaemenian.

2. (5-18.) Darius the King says: By the favor of Ahuramazda these are the countries which I got into my possession along with this Persian folk, which felt fear of me (and) bore me tribute: Elam, Media, Babylonia, Arabia, Assyria, Egypt, Armenia, Cappadocia, Sardis, Ionians who are of the mainland and (those) who are by the sea, and countries which are across the sea Sagartia, Parthia, Drangiana, Aria, Bactria, Sogdiana, Chorasmia, Sattagydia, Arachosia, Sind, Gandara, Seythians, Maka.

3. (18-24.) Darius the King says: If you shall think thus, "May I not feel fear of (any) other," protect this Persian people if the Persian people shall be protected, thereafter for the longest while happiness unbroken -- this will by Ahura come down upon this royal house.

DARIUS, PERSEPOLIS H. (DPh) Trilingual on gold and silver plates.

1. (1-3.) Darius the Great King, King of Kings, King of countries, son of Hystaspes, an Achaemenian.

2. (3-10.) Darius the King says: This is the kingdom which I hold, from the Scythians who are beyond Sogdiana, thence to Ethiopia from Sind thence to Sardis -- which Ahuramazda the greatest of the gods bestowed upon me. May Ahuramazda protect me, and my royal house.

THE INSCRIPTIONS OF NAQSH-I-RUSTAM. Inscriptions on south face of steep ridge north of Persepolis

1. (1-8.) A great god is Ahuramazda, who created this earth, who created yonder sky, who created man, who created happiness for man, who made Darius king, one king of many, one lord of many.

2. (8-15.) I am Darius the Great King, King of Kings, King of countries containing all kinds of men, King in this great earth far and wide, son of Hystaspes, an Achaemenian, a Persian, son of a Persian, an Aryan, having Aryan lineage.

3. (15-30.) Darius the King says: By the favor of Ahuramazda these are the countries which I seized outside of Persia I ruled over them they bore tribute to me what was said to them by me, that they did my law -- that held them firm Media, Elam, Parthia, Aria, Bactria, Sogdiana, Chorasmia, Drangiana, Arachosia, Sattagydia, Gandara, Sind, Amyrgian Scythians, Scythians with pointed caps, Babylonia, Assyria, Arabia, Egypt, Armenia, Cappadocia, Sardis, Ionia, Scythians who are across the sea, Skudra, petasos-wearing Ionians, Libyans, Ethiopians, men of Maka, Carians.

4. (30-47.) Darius the King says: Ahuramazda, when he saw this earth in commotion, thereafter bestowed it upon me, made me king I am king. By the favor of Ahuramazda I put it down in its place what I said to them, that they did, as was my desire. If now you shall think that "How many are the countries which King Darius held?" look at the sculptures (of those) who bear the throne, then shall you know, then shall it become known to you: the spear of a Persian man has gone forth far then shall it become known to you: a Persian man has delivered battle far indeed from Persia.

5. (47-55.) Darius the King says: This which has been done, all that by the will of Ahuramazda I did. Ahuramazda bore me aid, until I did the work. May Ahuramazda protect me from harm, and my royal house, and this land: this I pray of Ahuramazda, this may Ahuramazda give to me!

6. (56-60.) O man, that which is the command of Ahuramazda, let this not seem repugnant to you do not leave the right path do not rise in rebellion!

DARIUS, NAQSH-I-RUSTAM B. (DNb)

7. (1-5.) A great god is Ahuramazda, who created this excellent work which is seen, who created happiness for man, who bestowed wisdom and activity upon Darius the King.

8a. (5-11.) Darius the King says: By the favor of Ahuramazda I am of such a sort that I am a friend to right, I am not a friend to wrong. It is not my desire that the weak man should have wrong done to him by the mighty nor is that my desire, that the mighty man should have wrong done to him by the weak.

8b. (11-5.) What is right, that is my desire. I am not a friend to the man who is a Lie-follower. I am not hot-tempered. What things develop in my anger, I hold firmly under control by my thinking power. I am firmly ruling over my own (impulses).

8c. (16-21.) The man who cooperates, him according to his cooperative action, him thus do I reward. Who does harm, him according to the damage thus I punish. It is not my desire that a man should do harm nor indeed is that my desire, if he should do harm, he should not be punished.

8d. (21-4.) What a man says against a man, that does not convince me, until he satisfies the Ordinance of Good Regulations.

8e. (24-7.) What a man does or performs (for me) according to his (natural) powers, (therewith) I am satisfied, and my pleasure is abundant, and I am well satisfied.

8f. (27-31.) Of such a sort is my understanding and my command: when what has been done by me you shall see or hear of, both in the palace and in the warcamp, this is my activity over and above my thinking power and my understanding.

8g. (31-40.) This indeed is my activity: inasmuch as my body has the strength, as battle-fighter I am a good battle fighter. Once let there be seen with understanding in the place (of battle), what I see (to be) rebellious, what I see (to be) not (rebellious) both with understanding and with command then am I first to think with action, when I see a rebel as well as when I see a not-(rebel).

8h. (40-45.) Trained am I both with hands and with feet. As a horseman I am a good horseman. As a bowman I am a good bowman both afoot and on horseback. As a spearman I am a good spear-man both afoot and on horseback.

8i. (45-9.) And the (physical) skillfulnesses which Ahuramazda has bestowed upon me and I have had the strength to use them -- by the favor of Ahuramazda what has been done by me, I have done with these skillfulnesses which Ahuramazda has bestowed upon me.

9a. (50-5.) O menial, vigorously make you known of what sort I am, and of what sort my skillfulnesses, and of what sort my superiority. Let not that seem false to you, which has been heard by thy ears. That do you hear, which is communicated to you.

9b. (55-60.) O menial, let that not be made (to seem) false to you, which has been done by me. That do you behold, which [has been inscribed]. Let not the laws [be disobeyed] by you. Let not [anyone] be untrained [in obedience]. [O menial], let not the king (feel himself obliged to) inflict punishment (?) [for wrong-doing (?) on the dwellers (in the land) (?)].

DARIUS, SUSA E. (DSe) 10 OP fragments representing several copies.

1. (1-7.) . (= DNa 1-8).
2. (7-14.) . (= DNa 8-15).

3. (14-30.) . (= DNa 15-24), men of Maka, . (= DNa 24-8), Ionians, (those) who are by the sea and (those) who are across the sea, Skudra, Libyans, Ethiopians, Carians.

4. (30-41.) Darius the King says: Much which was ill-done, that I made good. Provinces were in commotion one man was smiting the other. The following I brought about by the favor of Ahuramazda, that the one does not smite the other at all, each one is in his place. My law -- of that they feel fear, so that the stronger does not smite nor destroy the weak.

5. (41-9.) Darius the King says: By the favor of Ahuramazda, much handiwork which previously had been put out of its place, that I put in its place. A town named . (its) wall fallen from age, before this unrepaired -- I built another wall (to serve) from that time into the future.

6. (49-52.) Darius the King says: May Ahuramazda together with the gods protect me, and my royal house, and what has been inscribed by me.

DARIUS, SUSA F. (DSf) Fragments of many copies on clay and marble tablets, and on glazed tiles of the frieze of the great hall.

1. (1-5.) . (= DNa 1-8).
2. (5-8.) . (= DSd 1-2).

3a. (8-12.) Darius the King says: Ahuramazda, the greatest of the gods -- he created me he made me king he bestowed upon me this kingdom, great, possessed of good horses, possessed of good men.

3h. (12-5.) By the favor of Ahuramazda my father Hystaspes and Arsames my grandfather -- these both were living when Ahuramazda made me king in this earth.

3c. (15-8.) To Ahuramazda thus was the desire: he chose me as (his) man in all the earth he made me king in all the earth.

3d. (18-22.) I worshipped Ahuramazda. Ahuramazda bore me aid. What was by me commanded to do, that he made successful for me. What I did, all by the favor of Ahuramazda I did.

3e. (22-7.) This palace which I built at Susa, from afar its ornamentation was brought. Downward the earth was dug, until I reached rock in the earth. When the excavation had been made, then rubble was packed down, some 40 cubits in depth, another (part) 20 cubits in depth. On that rubble the palace was constructed.

3f. (28-30.) And that the earth was dug downward, and that the rubble was packed down, and that the sun-dried brick was molded, the Babylonian people -- it did (these tasks).

3g. (30-5.) The cedar timber, this -- a mountain named Lebanon -- from there was brought. The Assyrian people, it brought it to Babylon from Babylon the Carians and the Ionians brought it to Susa. The yakâ-timber was brought from Gandara and from Carmania.

3h. (35-40.) The gold was brought from Sardis and from Bactria, which here was wrought. The precious stone lapis lazuli and carnelian which was wrought here, this was brought from Sogdiana. The precious stone turquois, this was brought from Chorasmia, which was wrought here.

3i. (40-5.) The silver and the ebony were brought from Egypt. The ornamentation with which the wall was adorned, that from Ionia was brought. The ivory which was wrought here, was brought from Ethiopia and from Sind and from Arachosia.

3j. (45-9.) The stone columns which were here wrought, a village named Abiradu, in Elam -- from there were brought. The stone-cutters who wrought the stone, those were Ionians and Sardians.

3k. (49-55.) The goldsmiths who wrought the gold, those were Medes and Egyptians. The men who wrought the wood, those were Sardians and Egyptians. The men who wrought the baked brick, those were Babylonians. The men who adorned the wall, those were Medes and Egyptians.

4. (55-8.) Darius the King says: At Susa a very excellent (work) was ordered, a very excellent (work) was (brought to completion). Me may Ahuramazda protect, and Hystaspes my father, and my country.

DARIUS, SUEZ C. (DZc)

1. (1-4.) . (= DNa 1-6, with one change of order) who upon Darius the King . (= Dsf 11-2).
2. (4-7.) . (=Dna 8-13).

3. (7-12.) Darius the King says: I am a Persian from Persia I seized Egypt I gave order to dig this canal from a river named Nile which flows in Egypt, to the sea which goes from Persia. Afterward this canal was dug thus as I had ordered, and ships went from Egypt through this canal to Persia thus as was my desire.

XERXES, PERSEPOLIS H. (XPh) The Daiva Inscription: Trilingual, on stone tablets, 2 copies.

1. (1-6.) . (= XPa 1-6).
2. (6-13.) . (=XPa 6-11, DNa 13-5).

3. (13-28.) Xerxes the King says: By the favor of Ahuramazda these are the countries of which I was king . (= DNa 18-22) Media, Elam, Arachosia, Armenia, Drangiana, Parthia, Aria, Bactria, Sogdiana, Chorasmia, Babylonia, Assyria, Sattagydia, Sardis, Egypt, Ionians, those who dwell by the sea and those who dwell across the sea, men of Maka, Arabia, Gandara, Sind, Cappadocia, Dahae, Amyrgian Scythians, Pointed-Cap Scythians, Skudra, men of Akaufaka, Libyans, Carians, Ethiopians.

4a. (28-35.) Xerxes the King says: When that I became king, there is among these countries which are inscribed above (one which) was in commotion. Afterwards Ahuramazda bore me aid by the favor of Ahuramazda I smote that country and put it down in its place.

4b. (35-41.) And among these countries there was (a place) where previously false gods [[Daevas]] were worshipped. Afterwards, by the favor of Ahuramazda, I destroyed that sanctuary of the demons, and I made proclamation, "The demons shall not be worshipped!" Where previously the demons were worshipped, there I worshipped Ahuramazda and Arta [[Asha]] reverent(ly).

4c. (41-6.) And there was other (business) that had been done ill that I made good. That which I did, all I did by the favor of Ahuramazda. Ahuramazda bore me aid, until I completed the work.

4d. (46-56.) Thou who (shall be) hereafter, if you shall think, "Happy may I be when living, and when dead may I be blessed," have respect for that law which Ahuramazda has established worship Ahuramazda and Arta reverent(ly). The man who has respect for that law which Ahuramazda has established, and worships Ahuramazda and Arta reverent(ly), he both becomes happy while living, and becomes blessed when dead.

5. (56-60.) Xerxes the King says: . (= DNa 51-5).

ARTAXERXES II, SUSA A. (A2Sa) Trilingual on bases of 4 columns.

Artaxerxes the Great King, King of Kings, King of Countries, King in this earth, son of Darius the King, of Darius (who was) son of Artaxerxes the King, of Artaxerxes (who was) son of Xerxes the King, of Xerxes (who was) son of Darius the King, of Darius (who was) son of Hystaspes, an Achaemenian, says: This palace Darius my great-great-grandfather built later under Artaxerxes my grandfather it was burned by the favor of Ahuramazda, Anahita, and Mithra, this palace I built. May Ahuramazda, Anahita, and Mithra protect me from all evil, and that which I have built may they not shatter nor harm.


Later research and activity

The site was visited by A. V. Williams Jackson in 1903. [5] Later expeditions, in 1904 sponsored by the British Museum and led by Leonard William King and Reginald Campbell Thompson and in 1948 by George G. Cameron of the University of Michigan, obtained photographs, casts and more accurate transcriptions of the texts, including passages that were not copied by Rawlinson. [6] [7] [8] [9] It also became apparent that rainwater had dissolved some areas of the limestone in which the text was inscribed, while leaving new deposits of limestone over other areas, covering the text.

In 1938, the inscription became of interest to the Nazi German think tank Ahnenerbe, although research plans were cancelled due to the onset of World War II.

The monument later suffered some damage from Allied soldiers using it for target practice in World War II, during the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran. [10] [11]

In 1999, Iranian archeologists began the documentation and assessment of damages to the site incurred during the 20th century. Malieh Mehdiabadi, who was project manager for the effort, described a photogrammetric process by which two-dimensional photos were taken of the inscriptions using two cameras and later transmuted into 3-D images. [12]

In recent years, Iranian archaeologists have been undertaking conservation works. The site became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2006. [13]

In 2012, the Bisotun Cultural Heritage Center organized an international effort to re-examine the inscription. [14]


Interpretations

Whether Darius I is telling the truth in his inscription cannot finally be known in spite of various modern-day scholars’ assertions otherwise. The famous scholar of Persian history, A. T. Olmstead, claims without doubt that Darius I was the actual usurper and Bardiya/Smerdis the rightful king based primarily on how there is no evidence of unrest or rebellion under Bardiya’s rule but widespread revolt when Darius I takes power.

According to this view, the Behistun Inscription would fall into the genre of Mesopotamian Naru Literature in which a certain historical event (or king) is presented in a tale with fictional elements to achieve a certain end – not to deceive, but to enlighten or give reason to events and encourage some central cultural value (in this case, the divine grace which legitimized a king). The Akkadian monarch Sargon of Akkad (r. 2334-2279 BCE), legendary by the time of Darius I, had used the same technique in his own autobiography centuries before in presenting himself as a man of the people to win support.

Ruins of Persepolis, capital of Darius I and his successors / Photo by Blondinrikard Fröberg, Flickr, Creative Commons

Olmstead, and others, could well be right, but it is just as likely that the satraps revolted, one after the other, in a bid to establish themselves as the rightful king – just as Darius I claims they did – whether the man Darius I overthrew was the “real” Bardiya or the usurper Gaumata. The subject nation states of any empire, from the Akkadian through the Roman Empire, took advantage of a change in monarchs to assert their rights in greater or lesser degrees, whether by diplomatic requests or outright rebellion. It is hardly unusual to find subjugated peoples, no matter how well they are treated, wanting their freedom and asserting their desire for self-determination through rebellion.

What kind of monarch Bardiya/Gaumata would have been will never be known but Darius I is not known as “the Great” for nothing. He initiated grand building projects (such as his complex at Persepolis), commissioned roads throughout the empire (including the great Royal Road from Persepolis to Sardis), invented the postal system, standardized the currency through introduction of his own coinage (the Daric), increased and organized trade (building a canal in Egypt linking the Nile River to the Red Sea for this purpose), and continued the Persian government policies of his predecessors of tolerance and acceptance of the religious and cultural values of all the subject nations in his empire. In every respect, Darius I was an impressive king and, finally, whether he embellished his autobiography does not matter he proved he was the legitimate ruler through his exemplary reign.


A century of wonderful discoveries - 16th century AD

At the end of the 16th century, the Englishman Shirley Robert, who performed a diplomatic mission, saw this amazing rock inscription. European scientists learned from him about the historical bas-relief.

Many believed that this is an image of Jesus Christ and the 12 apostles.

Delusions continued in the middle ages of our era. So, the Scottish traveler Porter Ker Robert suggested that the monument belongs to a tribe of Israel from Assyria.


Henry Rawlinson and the Mesopotamian Cuneiform

On April 11 , 1810 , British East India Company army officer , politician and Orientalist Sir Henry Creswicke Rawlinson was born. As an army officer , became interested in antiquities after his assignment to reorganize the Persian army . He accomplished the translation of the Old Persian portion of the trilingual mutilingual cuneiform inscription of Darius I on the hillside at Behistun , Iran , which provided the key to the deciphering of Mesopotamian cuneiform script .

Henry Rawlinson – Early Years

Rawlinson was born in Chadlington , Oxfordshire, England , the second son of Abram Tyack Rawlinson, and elder brother of the historian George Rawlinson . In 1827 he started his military career , going to India as a cadet under the British East India Company . After six years with his regiment as subaltern, during which time he had become proficient in the Persian language , he was sent to Persia in company with other British officers to drill and reorganize the Shah’s troops . There he became keenly interested in Persian antiquities and inscriptions , and deciphering of the famous and hitherto undeciphered cuneiform character inscriptions at Behistun (بیستون‎) became his goal.

The Behistun Inscriptions

The Behistun inscriptions are located near the city of Kermanshah in western Iran . In 1598 , the Englishman Robert Sherley saw the inscription during a diplomatic mission to Persia and brought it to the attention of Western European scholars . The members of his expedition incorrectly came to the conclusion that it was Christian in origin . Italian explorer Pietro della Valle visited the inscription in the course of a pilgrimage in around 1621 . German surveyor Carsten Niebuhr visited the inscriptions in around 1764 , publishing a copy of the inscription in the account of his journeys in 1778 . Niebuhr’s transcriptions were used by Georg Friedrich Grotefend and others in their efforts to decipher the Old Persian cuneiform script. [4]

Old Persian Inscriptions

In late May 1836 , Rawlinson climbed repeatedly up to the ledge to copy the first lines of the Old Persian inscriptions [3]. He began to transcribe the Old Persian portion of the trilingual inscriptions in Old Persian , Elamite and Babylonian written by the Medes and Persian ruler Darius the Great sometime between his coronation as king of the Persian Empire in the summer of 522 BC and his death in autumn of 486 BC . After two years of work, Rawlinson published his translations of the first two paragraphs of the inscription in 1837 . However, the friction between the Persian court and the British government ended in the departure of the British officers and Rawlinson had to interrupt his efforts .

Afghan War and Baghdad

In 1840 , Rawlinson was appointed political agent at Kandahar and due to his political labors being as meritorious as was his gallantry during various engagements in the course of the Afghan War , he was rewarded by the distinction of Companion of the Bath ( C.B .) in 1844 . A fortunate chance , by which he became personally known to the governor-general, led to his being appointed as political agent in Ottoman Arabia . Through this, he was able to settle in Baghdad , where he devoted much time to his cuneiform studies . With considerable difficulty and at no small personal risk, he made a complete transcript of the Behistun inscription , which he was also successful in deciphering and interpreting.

The Behistun Inscriptions, Column 1 (DB I 1-15), sketch by Friedrich von Spiegel (1881)

Decipherment of Cuneiform

For centuries , travelers to Persia had noticed carved cuneiform inscriptions and were intrigued. Attempts at deciphering these Old Persian writings date back to medieval times though being largely unsuccessful. In 1625 , Roman traveler Pietro Della Valle , brought back a tablet written with cuneiform glyphs he had found in Ur together with the copy of five characters he had found in Persepolis . Della Valle already understood that the writing had to be read from left to right , but did not attempt to decipher the scripts . In the 18th century , Carsten Niebuhr brought the first reasonably complete and accurate copies of the inscriptions at Persepolis to Europe . Bishop Friedrich Münter of Copenhagen discovered that the words in the Persian inscriptions were divided from one another by an oblique wedge and that the monuments with the inscriptions must belong to the age of Persian emperor Cyrus and his successors. One word, which occurs without any variation towards the beginning of each inscription , he correctly inferred to signify “ king “. By 1802 Georg Friedrich Grotefend had determined that two king’s names mentioned were Darius and Xerxes , and had been able to assign correct alphabetic values to the cuneiform characters which composed the two names.[5]

A Rosetta Stone for Cuneiform

When Henry Rawlinson copied the Behistun Inscriptions in Persia in 1835 , he realized that they consisted of identical texts in the three official languages of the empire: Old Persian , Babylonian , and Elamite . Thus, the Behistun inscription was to the decipherment of cuneiform what the Rosetta Stone was to the decipherment of Egyptian hieroglyphs . Rawlinson correctly deduced that the Old Persian was a phonetic script and he successfully deciphered it. In 1837 he finished his copy of the Behistun inscription , and sent a translation of its opening paragraphs to the Royal Asiatic Society . Before his article could be published, however, the works of Norwegian-German orientalist Christian Lassen and the French orientalist Eugène Burnouf reached him, necessitating a revision of his article and the postponement of its publication . The original inscriptions published by Niebuhr contained a list of the satrapies of Darius . Based on that, Burnouf and Laasen independently had been able to identify an alphabet of thirty letters , most of which they had correctly deciphered. Due to further causes of delay, the first part of the Henry Rawlinson’s Memoir was published in 1847 the second part did not appear until 1849 . By then, the task of deciphering the Persian cuneiform texts was virtually accomplished.

Later Years

Henry Rawlinson collected a great amount of invaluable information in addition to much geographical knowledge gained in the furtherance of various explorations . In 1849 , he returned to England and was promoted to the rank of lieutenant-colonel . He donated his valuable collection of Babylonian , Sabaean , and Sassanian antiquities to the trustees of the British Museum , who in return gave him a considerable grant to enable him to carry on Assyrian and Babylonian excavations . In 1851 , he became consul general at Baghdad and succeeded the archaeologist Austen Henry Layard in the work of obtaining ancient sculptures for the museum . On resigning his post with the British East India Company in 1855 , Rawlinson was knighted and made a crown director of the company . The remaining 40 years of his life were full of activity – political, diplomatic, and scientific – and were mainly spent in London . Henry Rawlinson became a trustee of the British Museum , serving from 1876 till his death in 1895 .

To learn more about cuneiform, at yovisto academic video search you may watch a short video documentation on early books including cuneiform clay tablets.


Depiction in History

The first historical mention of the inscription is by the Greek Ctesias of Cnidus, who noted its existence some time around 400 B.C.E., and mentions a well and a garden beneath the inscription dedicated by Queen Semiramis of Babylon to Zeus (the Greek analogue of Ahura Mazda). Tacitus also mentions it and includes a description of some of the long-lost ancillary monuments at the base of the cliff, including an altar to Hercules. What has been recovered of them, including a statue dedicated in 148 B.C.E., is consistent with Tacitus’ description. Diodorus also writes of “Bagistanon” and claims it was inscribed by Queen Semiramis.

After the fall of the Persian Empire and its successors, and the loss of cuneiform writing, the nature of the inscription was forgotten and fanciful origins became the norm. For centuries, instead of being attributed to Darius—one of the first Persian kings—it was believed to be from the reign of Chosroes II of Persia—one of the last.

The transcription kept it’s wondrous aura, however, and a legend arose found in the book of Chosroes and Shirin that states that Farhad, a lover of Chosroes’ wife, Shirin, was the one who moved half the mountain away as this was part of his punishment for his transgression. He died, but was also credited with being the source of a tree with fruit that will cure the sick. It is unknown, however, if anyone has been cured in the pool at the inscription.

Column 1 (DB I 1-15), sketch by Friedrich von Spiegel (1881) / Wikimedia Commons

The inscription was noted by an Arab traveler, Ibn Hawqal, in the mid-900s, who interpreted the figures as a teacher punishing his pupils. It was not until 1598, when the Englishman Robert Sherley saw the inscription during a diplomatic mission to Persia on behalf of Austria, that the inscription first came to the attention of western European scholars. His party came to the conclusion that it was a picture of the ascension of Jesus with an inscription in Greek.

Biblical misinterpretations by Europeans were rife for the next two centuries. French General Gardanne thought it showed Christ and his twelve apostles, and Sir Robert Ker Porter thought it represented the twelve tribes of Israel and Shalmaneser of Assyria.


Behistun Inscription

The Behistun Inscription (also Bisitun or Bisutun, Modern Persian : بیستون Old Persian : Bagastana, meaning "the god's place or land") is a multi-lingual inscription located on Mount Behistun in the Kermanshah Province of Iran , near the town of Jeyhounabad .

The inscription includes three versions of the same text, written in three different cuneiform script languages: Old Persian, Elamite, and Babylonian. A British army officer, Henry Rawlinson, had the inscription transcribed in two parts, in 1835 and 1843. Rawlinson was able to translate the Old Persian cuneiform text in 1838, and the Elamite and Babylonian texts were translated by Rawlinson and others after 1843. Babylonian was a later form of Akkadian: both are Semitic languages . In effect, then, the inscription is to cuneiform what the Rosetta Stone is to Egyptian hieroglyph s: the document most crucial in the decipherment of a previously lost script.

The inscription is approximately 15 metre s high by 25 metres wide, and 100 metres up a limestone cliff from an ancient road connecting the capitals of Babylonia and Media ( Babylon and Ecbatana ). It is extremely inaccessible as the mountainside was removed to make the inscription more visible after its completion. The Old Persian text contains 414 lines in five columns the Elamite text includes 593 lines in eight columns and the Babylonian text is in 112 lines. The inscription was illustrated by a life-sized bas-relief of Darius, holding a bow as a sign of kingship, with his left foot on the chest of a figure lying on his back before him. The prostrate figure is reputed to be the pretender Gaumata . Darius is attended to the left by two servants, and ten one-metre figures stand to the right, with hands tied and rope around their necks, representing conquered peoples. Faravahar floats above, giving his blessing to the king. One figure appears to have been added after the others were completed, as was (oddly enough) Darius' beard Fact|date=November 2007, which is a separate block of stone attached with iron pins and lead .

In ancient history

The first historical mention of the inscription is by the Greek Ctesias of Cnidus, who noted its existence some time around 400 BC , and mentions a well and a garden beneath the inscription dedicated by Queen Semiramis of Babylon to Zeus (the Greek analogue of Ahura Mazda ). Tacitus also mentions it and includes a description of some of the long-lost ancillary monuments at the base of the cliff, including an altar to Hercules . What has been recovered of them, including a statue dedicated in 148 BC, is consistent with Tacitus' description. Diodorus also writes of "Bagistanon" and claims it was inscribed by Queen Semiramis.

After the fall of the Persian Empire and its successors, and the fall of cuneiform writing into disuse, the nature of the inscription was forgotten and fanciful origins became the norm. For centuries, instead of being attributed to Darius &mdash one of the first Persian kings &mdash it was believed to be from the reign of Chosroes II of Persia &mdash one of the last.

A legend arose that it had been created by Farhad , a lover of Chosroes' wife, Shirin . Exiled for his transgression, Farhad is given the task of cutting away the mountain to find water if he succeeds, he will be given permission to marry Shirin. After many years and the removal of half the mountain, he does find water, but is informed by Chosroes that Shirin had died. He goes mad, throws his axe down the hill, kisses the ground and dies. It is told in the book of Chosroes and Shirin that his axe was made out of a Pomegranate tree, and where he threw the axe a Pomegranate tree grew with fruit that would cure the ill. Shirin is not dead, naturally, and mourns upon hearing the news.

Translation

The inscription was noted by an Arab traveller, Ibn Hawqal , in the mid-900s, who interpreted the figures as a teacher punishing his pupils. It was not until 1598, when the Englishman Robert Sherley saw the inscription during a diplomatic mission to Persia on behalf of Austria , that the inscription first came to the attention of western European scholars. His party came to the conclusion that it was a picture of the ascension of Jesus with an inscription in Greek.

Biblical misinterpretations by Europeans were rife for the next two centuries. French General Gardanne thought it showed Christ and his twelve apostles , and Sir Robert Ker Porter thought it represented the 12 tribes of Israel and Shalmaneser of Assyria. Italian explorer Pietro della Valle visited the inscription in the course of a pilgrimage in around 1621, and German surveyor Carsten Niebuhr visited in around 1764 while exploring Arabia and the Middle East for Frederick V of Denmark , publishing a copy of the inscription in the account of his journeys in 1777. Niebuhr's transcriptions were used by Georg Friedrich Grotefend and others in their efforts to decipher the Old Persian cuneiform script. Grotefend had deciphered ten of the 37 symbols of Old Persian by 1802.

In 1835, Sir Henry Rawlinson, an officer of the British East India Company army assigned to the forces of the Shah of Iran, began studying the inscription in earnest. As the town of Bisutun's name was anglicized as "Behistun" at this time, the monument became known as the "Behistun Inscription". Despite its relative inaccessibility, Rawlinson was able to scale the cliff and copy the Old Persian inscription. The Elamite was across a chasm, and the Babylonian four metres above both were beyond easy reach and were left for later.

Armed with the Persian text, and with about a third of the syllabary made available to him by the work of Georg Friedrich Grotefend , Rawlinson set to work on deciphering the text. Fortunately, the first section of this text contained a list of the same Persian kings found in Herodotus in their original Persian forms as opposed to Herodotus's Greek transliteration s, for example Darius is given as the original "Dâryavuš" instead of the Hellenized "Δαρειος". By matching the names and the characters, Rawlinson was able to decipher the type of cuneiform used for Old Persian by 1838 and present his results to the Royal Asiatic Society in London and the Société Asiatique in Paris .

Surprisingly, the Old Persian text was copied and deciphered before the recovery and copying of the Elamite and Babylonian inscriptions had even been attempted. In the interim, Rawlinson spent a brief tour of duty in Afghanistan , returning to the site in 1843. He first crossed a chasm between the Persian and Elamite scripts by bridging the gap with planks, subsequently copying the Elamite inscription. He was then able to find an enterprising local boy to climb up a crack in the cliff and suspend ropes across the Babylonian writing, so that papier-mâché casts of the inscriptions could be taken. Rawlinson, along with scholars Edward Hincks , Julius Oppert , William Henry Fox Talbot , and Edwin Norris , either working separately or in collaboration eventually deciphered these inscriptions, leading eventually to the ability to read them completely. The ability to read Old Persian, Elamite, and Babylonian was one of the key developments that put the field of Assyriology on a modern footing.

After Rawlinson

Later expeditions, in 1904 sponsored by the British Museum and led by Leonard William King and Reginald Campbell Thompson and in 1948 by George G. Cameron of the University of Michigan , obtained photographs, casts and more accurate transcriptions of the texts, including passages that were not copied by Rawlinson. It also became apparent that rainwater had dissolved some areas of the limestone in which the text is inscribed, while leaving new deposits of limestone over other areas, covering the text.

The monument suffered some damage from soldiers using it for target practice during World War II . In recent years, Iranian archaeologists have been undertaking conservation works. The site became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2006. [http://www.payvand.com/news/06/jul/1130.html]

Other historical monuments in Behistun complex

The site covers an area of 116 hectares. Archeological evidence indicates that this region became a human shelter 40,000 years ago. There are 18 historical monuments other than the inscription of Darius the great in the Behistun complex that have been registered in the Iranian national list of historical sites. Some of them are:

* Hunters cave,
* Farhad Tarash,
* Median fortress,
* Parthian town,
* Seleucid statue of Hercules ,
* Parthian worshipping place,
* Khosrow palace,
* Ilkhanid caravanserai ,
* Median temple,
* Bas relief of Mithridates II of Parthia ,
* Bas relief of Gotarzes II of Parthia ,
* Sheikh Ali khan Zangeneh text endowment,
* Safavid caravanserai,
* Balash stone,
* Carved Sassanian stones,
* Royal Road ,

* Darius I of Persia
* Full translation of the Behistun Inscription
* Achaemenid empire
* Taq-e Bostan (Rock reliefs of various Sassanid kings)
* Pasargadae (Tomb of Pasargadae Cyrus the Great )
* Ka'ba-i Zartosht (The "Cube of Zoroaster", a monument at Naqsh-e Rustam)
* Naqsh-e Rajab

*Adkins, Lesley, "Empires of the Plain: Henry Rawlinson and the Lost Languages of Babylon", St. Martin's Press, New York, 2003.
*Rawlinson, H.C., "Archaeologia", 1853, vol. xxxiv, p. 74
*Thompson, R. Campbell. "The Rock of Behistun". "Wonders of the Past". Edited by Sir J. A. Hammerton. Vol. II. New York: Wise and Co., 1937. (p. 760&ndash767) [http://members.ozemail.com.au/

ancientpersia/behistun.html]
*Cameron, George G. "Darius Carved History on Ageless Rock". " National Geographic Magazine ". Vol. XCVIII, Num. 6, December 1950. (p. 825&ndash844) [http://members.ozemail.com.au/

ancientpersia/behistun.html]
*Rubio, Gonzalo. "Writing in another tongue: Alloglottography in the Ancient Near East." In "Margins of Writing, Origins of Cultures" (ed. Seth Sanders. 2nd printing with postscripts and corrections. Oriental Institute Seminars, 2. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007), pp. 33-70. [http://oi.uchicago.edu/research/pubs/catalog/ois/ois2.html]

External links

* "The Bisotun inscription", Photos from Iran, [http://www.livius.org/be-bm/behistun/behistun01.html "Livius"] .
* "Gandj Nameh", Photos from Iran, [http://www.livius.org/a/iran/gandj_nameh/gandj_nameh.html "Livius"] .
* [http://aryo.ir/pages/kermanshah/bisotun.htm Photos of Bisotun Complex] - From Online Photo Gallery Of [http://www.aryo.ir Aryo.ir]
* [http://www.livius.org/be-bm/behistun/behistun01.html The Behistun Inscription] , livius.org article by Jona Lendering, including Persian text (in cuneiform and transliteration), English translation, and additional materials
* [http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/txt/ah/Persia/Behistun_txt.html English translation of the inscription text]
* [http://library.case.edu:9090/ksl/ecoll/books/anoscu00/anoscu00.pdf Case Western Reserve University Digital Library] &mdash the complete text of the Behistun inscription, in transcribed cuneiform and English translation, available in PDF format
* [http://www.ghiasabadi.com/behistun2.html Behistun Inscription, Persian text ترجمه فارسی کتیبه بیستون]
* [http://visopsys.org/andy/essays/darius-bisitun.html Darius the Great and the Bisutun Inscription] , by J. Andrew McLaughlin
* [https://www.sharemation.com/zoroaster7/BISOTUN.PDF?uniq=ksz8bm Bisotun] &mdash the complete text of the bisotun inscription, in transcribed cuneiform and Persian translation, available in pdf format.
* [http://www.payvand.com/news/04/aug/1149.html Iran: Documentation of Behistun Inscription Nearly Complete]
* [http://www.avesta.org/op/op.htm Behistun and many others persian royal inscriptions]
* [http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1222 Brief description of Bisotun] from UNESCO
* "Bisotun receives its World Heritage certificate", Cultural Heritage News Agency, Tehran, July 3, 2008, [http://www.chnpress.com/news/?section=2&id=7430] .
* [http://www.livius.org/be-bm/behistun/behistun-rem.html Other monuments of Behistun]

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Full translation of the Behistun Inscription — The following translation of the Behistun Inscription was made by L.W. King and R.C. Thompson [ The sculptures and inscription of Darius the Great on the rock of Behistûn in Persia , 1907 London. (I have made some minor changes and added the… … Wikipedia

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Behistun — Inscription de Behistun L’inscription de Behistun (ou Béhistoun ou Bisistun) est une inscription monumentale décrivant les conquêtes de Darius Ier en trois langues : le vieux persan, l élamite et l akkadien. Le texte est gravé dans une… … Wikipédia en Français

Inscription De Behistun — L’inscription de Behistun (ou Béhistoun ou Bisistun) est une inscription monumentale décrivant les conquêtes de Darius Ier en trois langues : le vieux persan, l élamite et l akkadien. Le texte est gravé dans une falaise du mont Behistun,… … Wikipédia en Français

Inscription de behistun — L’inscription de Behistun (ou Béhistoun ou Bisistun) est une inscription monumentale décrivant les conquêtes de Darius Ier en trois langues : le vieux persan, l élamite et l akkadien. Le texte est gravé dans une falaise du mont Behistun,… … Wikipédia en Français

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Behistun — /bay hi stoohn /, n. a ruined town in W Iran: site of a cliff that bears on its face a cuneiform inscription in Old Persian, Elamite, and Babylonian that provided a key for the decipherment of cuneiform in other languages. Also, Bisitun, Bisutun … Universalium


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