Mikhail Makarios III - History

Mikhail Makarios III - History

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Mikhail Makarios III

1913- 1977

Cypriot Politician

Mikhail Makarios received his education in Greece and the United States. He was ordained in 1946 and in 1950 he became Archbishop and Primate of Cyprus.

The British suspected Makarios of collaborating with anti-British terrorists, and exiled him. Makarios returned to Cyprus in 1959, and became Prime Minister.

With the exception of a short interval in 1974, Makarios remained head of state until his death. Throughout it all, Makarios maintained his dual role of head of state and head of church.

Repoblika Tiorka an'i Kiprosy

I Kiprosy Avaratra na Repoblika Torkan'i Kiprosy Avaratra dia fanjakana izay tsy misy manaiky afa-tsy i Torkia, ao amin'ny tapany avaratra atsinanan'ny nosy Kiprosy. Nanambara ny fahaleovantenany izy tamin'ny 15 Novambra 1983, sivy taona taorian'ny fidirana antsehatry ny tafika torka tao amin'ny tapany avaratry ny nosy tamin'ny taona 1974, hanoherana ny fikasana hanakambana io nosy io amin'i Gresy (na Grisia) nataon'ny vondrona manamboninahitra mpanongam-panjakana tao amin'ny mpisahana ny fiambenana ny firenena kiprioty (notarihin'i Níkos Sampsón), izay avy nanongana ny filoha Mikhaíl Makarios tamin'ny taona 1974.

Atao hoe Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti (hafohezina amin'ny hoe Kuzey Kıbrıs sy KKTC) i Kiprosy Avaratra amin'ny teny torka, fa Τουρκική Δημοκρατία της Βόρειας Κύπρου (hafohezina amin'ny hoe Βόρεια Κύπρος na ΤΔΒΚ) amin'ny teny grika ankahitriny.

Ny Fanjakan'i Kiprosy Avaratra dia ataon'ny Firenena Mikambana sy ny Filankevitr'i Eoropa tapany avaratry ny Repoblikan'i Kiprosy ihany. Ny tafika torka anefa mametraka miaramila miisa 30 000 ao sady nanao izay honenanan'ny olona miisa 120 000 ao avy any Anatolia nanomboka tamin'ny taona 1974. Ny mponina Kiprioty torka tompon-tany dia vitsy kokoa raha mitaha amin'ny mpifindra monina avy any Torkia.

Azonao atao ny mandray anjara eto amin'ny Wikipedia amin'ny alàlan'ny fanitarana azy.
Jereo koa ny pejy Ahoana ny manao takelaka rehefa te-hijery hoe ahoana no fanaovana azy.

Ny Repoblika Tiorka an'i Kiprosy (Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti) dia firenena "nahazo fahaleovantena" tamin'ny 15 Novambra 1983, teo arinan'ny natongavan'ny torka teo avaratran'ny nosy ny Kipra tamin'ny 1974. Ny Torkia ihany no mafantatra azy.

Saint Makarios of Corinth

Saint Makarios of Corinth (1731–1805) was of aristocratic background. As a young man he was a volunteer school teacher in Corinth, his birthplace, for six years. Then, though still a layman, he was unanimously selected by laity and clergy to be the new archbishop of Corinth.

As bishop, he immediately began improving the state of the Church under his care by more strictly applying the canons regarding Church life. For instance, he prohibited priests from taking part in political affairs, and he strictly honored the canonical age for clerical ordinations. He distributed catechisms to all his priests, discharged all illiterate priests, and sent ordinands to monasteries for training. He also urged the wealthy to donate large baptismal basins to the churches, so that children could be baptized properly. He planned to establish schools throughout his archbishopric, but was prevented from doing so by the Russo-Turkish War in 1768, which ended his episcopacy in Corinth.

After his episcopacy, he went to live on Mount Athos as a monk. Here he devoted much time to editing and writing. In this way he made great contributions to the life of the Church.

While on Mount Athos, he helped to found the Kollyvades Movement. This was a group of fervent defenders of traditional Orthodoxy. Its formation was in response to the innovation of the Skete of Saint Anne on Mount Athos of holding memorial services for the dead on Sundays—which seemed to the Kollyvades to be a violation of the spirit of Sunday as the day for the celebration every week of the Resurrection of Christ. The Kollyvades (from &lsquokollyva,&rsquo the boiled wheat eaten after such memorial services) were first called this derogatorily by the innovators.

The dispute spread to other sketes of the Holy Mountain and assumed dangerous proportions, with the innovators insulting and persecuting the traditionalists. Eventually, after much conflict and indecision, the new practice was accepted by the Patriarchate of Constantinople.

Many of the Kollyvades party also espoused more frequent partaking of Holy Communion, since for centuries it had become very widespread practice that people were communing only two or three times a year. The Kollyvades saw this as symptomatic of the severe decline in the spiritual life of the people in this era. In 1777 St Makarios published a book called Concerning Continual Communion of the Divine Mysteries. In 1783, Saint Nikodemos gave this book its final form. Appealing to the Scriptures, the Fathers, and the canons of the Church, Saint Makarios and Saint Nikodemos in this book specifically refute 13 reasons typically given as to why the Eucharist should be received so infrequently. The book was met with much resistance, before it was finally generally accepted.

The Kollyvades group also revived and cultivated an interest in hesychastic, mystical prayer, which had fallen into relative oblivion. Saints Makarios and Nikodemos helped very much to revive hesychasm in their own day through their publication of the Philokalia—the highly renowned compilation of selected spiritual writings from the 4th through the 15th centuries. In their introduction, the editors say that they have compiled the work from various old manuscripts &ldquofound scattered in dark holes and corners.&rdquo To this day, the Philokalia is considered among the Orthodox as the greatest anthology of spiritual wisdom ever published.

Some particularly noteworthy writings in the Philokalia

Saint Mark the Ascetic, &ldquoOn Those who Think that They are Made Righteous by Works&rdquo (5th century)

Saint Diodochos of Photiki, &ldquoOn Spiritual Knowledge and Discrimination&rdquo (5th century)

Saint Maximos the Confessor, &ldquoFour Hundred Texts on Love&rdquo (7th century)

Saint John of Damaskos, &ldquoOn the Virtues and the Vices&rdquo (8th century)

Saint Symeon Metaphrastes, &ldquoParaphrase of the Homilies of St Makarios of Egypt&rdquo (11th century)

Nikitas Stethatos, &ldquoOn the Inner Nature of Things and on the Purification of the Intellect&rdquo (11th century)

Saint Peter of Damaskos, &ldquoA Treasury of Divine Knowledge&rdquo (12th century)

Saint Gregory of Sinai, &ldquoOn Stillness&rdquo (14th century)

Saint Gregory Palamas, &ldquoIn Defense of Those who Devoutly Practice a Life of Stillness&rdquo (14th century)

Makarios went to Smyrna to raise money to publish the Philokalia, along with Concerning Continual Communion and the Evergenitos (a large collection of lives and sayings of the Desert Fathers, which has deeply influenced monastic spirituality). Saints Makarios and Nikodemos also collaborated in compiling The Extant Works of Saint Symeon the New Theologian.

Saint Makarios also contributed to the publication of a new martyrologium, consisting of the Lives of 75 Orthodox new martyrs who suffered under the Ottoman Turks between 1492 and 1794. He played a role in directly encouraging some of the new martyrs through being a father confessor to a number of Greeks who had been converted in one way or another to Islam, but then returned to the Christian Faith and wanted to atone for their apostasy by martyrdom.

Many of the Kollyvades left Mount Athos due to the persecution there. According to Constantine Cavarnos, they &ldquoscattered all over Greece, especially the Aegean Islands, becoming spiritual awakeners and reformers through their sermons, personal counsels, the establishment of monasteries that developed into luminous centers of spiritual life, and their exemplary Christian character and way of life.&rdquo

Saint Makarios was one of the Kollyvades who left the Holy Mountain, eventually settling in a hermitage on the island of Chios. There he lived in peace from 1790 until his death in 1805.


Giorkatzis joined the ranks of EOKA, the Greek Cypriot organization fighting against British rule in Cyprus, in his twenties and assumed the nom de guerre Laertes. He became regional commander of EOKA operations in Nicosia. He was nicknamed "Houdini" in reference to his several successful escapes including from the Nicosia hospital on 31 August 1956 [2] and from Nicosia Central Prisons on 2 May 1958. [3] After the end of the struggle he claimed to have been tortured whilst held captive by the colonial security forces. [4]

Provisional Minister of Labour Edit

Giorkatzis was appointed Minister of Labour in the transitional government set up immediately before the Republic of Cyprus became independent. The Ministry of Labour, however, was effectively run by Tassos Papadopoulos, who held the official title of Minister of the Interior. British pressure had forced Makarios to distance Giorkatzis, a former active EOKA member from the Ministry of Interior which was in charge of internal security, police and intelligence.

Minister of the Interior Edit

Following the first elections in 1960, Archbishop Makarios III, officially swapped the ministries between the two men. Typically for the ex-EOKA ministers in Makarios' first Council of Ministers, Giorkatzis was very young at the time, aged 29. He also had no higher education.

As Minister of the Interior, Giorkatzis quickly became notorious for using the police as his personal army. It is rumoured that he also set up a vast information network. He was also the leader of the underground Greek Cypriot pro-Enosis movement, initially known simply as the Organisation, which later clashed with the Turkish Cypriot TMT in the intercommunal strife which began in December 1963. Giorkatzis' code name in the Organisation was "Akritas", another name for the legendary Byzantine hero Digenis, an obvious link to the pseudonym of EOKA leader Georgios Grivas. Giorkatzis is alleged to have authored the so-called Akritas plan (plan of action in case of clashes between the Greek and Turkish communities in Cyprus). The document became famous after it was leaked to the press, and acquired its popular name from the codename signed under it. With Glafkos Clerides he established the first centre right party of Cyprus, attracting many of the EOKA members in its ranks.

Links to failed Greek PM assassination Edit

In 1968, Giorkatzis offered assistance to Alekos Panagoulis, a Greek political activist (and later politician), who opposed the rise of the military junta in Greece, in his attempted assassination of dictator Georgios Papadopoulos on 13 August 1968. Panagoulis was arrested shortly after the failure of the attempt. It is not likely Giorkatzis was acting out of ideology. It is much more probable that he attempted to use Panagoulis as part of some greater plan, since there were growing signs of disagreement between the government of Cyprus under President and Archbishop Makarios and the military junta in Greece. What is known is that Giorkatzis simultaneously attempted to ship explosives and weapons to Greece using diplomatic bag prerogatives.

Despite the torture he was subjected to, Panagoulis revealed nothing. However, the Giorkatzis connection became known to the junta and Archbishop Makarios, President of the Republic of Cyprus, was forced by the junta to ask for Giorkatzis' resignation. The dictator Georgios Papadopoulos, the target of the attempt, had been godfather at the baptism of Giorkatzis' first child, Constantinos, just a year earlier, which particularly incensed Papadopoulos.

In 1970, juntist Greek officers of the National Guard in Cyprus planned a coup against Makarios (Operation Hermes). They approached Giorkatzis, who was still sidelined after his resignation, but continued to command a deep network inside the state, and the police force in particular. They asked him to plan and execute the assassination of Makarios which was intended to spark off unrest, so that the National Guard could then intervene and "restore order". Giorkatzis agreed to co-operate.

Giorkatzis' men shot at Makarios' helicopter just after it took off from the Archbishopric in Nicosia to convey the Archbishop to a memorial service for EOKA hero Grigoris Afxentiou in the mountains of Macheras. The machine was damaged and the pilot wounded, but a successful forced landing was made nearby and Makarios escaped, taking the pilot to Nicosia General Hospital with the aid of passers-by. The plan failed and the role of Greek officers Poulitsas and Papapostolou, who were part of Makarios' entourage, was revealed. Giorkatzis attempted to appease Makarios by leaking the plan for Operation Hermes to Speaker of the House of Representatives Glafkos Klerides, who forwarded it to Makarios. Makarios did not need to see the plan to know that the Greek officers in the National Guard and the junta of Athens were behind the attempt. He also did not want to escalate the crisis in his relations with the junta. Via selective leaks to the press from the Presidential Palace, the plan for Operation Hermes was exposed publicly, but denounced as a fake designed to shatter the confidence of the people in the National Guard. Makarios publicly stated his confidence in the National Guard to defuse the crisis, temporarily at least.

A week later, Giorkatzis drove to a secret night rendezvous in an open area outside the village of Mia Milia. He asked a close associate to accompany him, but dropped him off some distance from the meeting point and drove on alone. As Giorkatzis' car approached another car parked at the meeting point, the occupants of the other car opened fire with automatic weapons. One of them then walked up to Giorkatzis' car and delivered a coup de grâce. They then drove off leaving Giorkatzis dead at the scene. Fanis Demetriou, the police officer in charge of the investigation, quickly found evidence pointing towards the same two Greek officers in Makarios' entourage who had been found to be involved in the Hermes plot. After he reported this to his superiors, Demetriou was ordered off the case. The two particular Greek officers were eventually only questioned several weeks later, at which time they gave identical accounts of their whereabouts on the night of the murder. They both left the island shortly thereafter and never returned.

In the trial of the men in the teams that shot at the President's helicopter, the court noted the leading part Giorkatzis played as chief instigator and planner of the attempt, but did not call him to account as he was already deceased.

Giorkatzis' widow Fotini married Tassos Papadopoulos, then Minister of Labour, two years after her husband's death. Papadopoulos and Giorkatzis had been close friends, and Papadopoulos had been best man at Giorkatzis' wedding.

Though Giorkatzis planned and executed an operation to assassinate the President of the Republic, and though his role in this has been acknowledged by the courts, the yearly church service in his memory is attended by prominent figures among the Greek Cypriot political leadership and at least one street has been named after him. A museum honoring the most distinguished aspects of his life is active in his birthplace in Palaichori, formally opened in 2002 by the then President Glafkos Clerides.

About us

The ideal place to stay while visiting Cyprus, The Landmark Nicosia is superbly located within easy reach of Nicosia’s city center, next to the business and shopping district, and within walking distance of the city’s historic sites, museums and art galleries. A 20-minute stroll will take you into the Old City where historic churches and mosques are surrounded by ancient Venetian Walls, once built to defend the city. Visit one of the area’s traditional meze restaurants or explore its rich history. Back at the hotel, you can enjoy the Mediterranean climate as you cool off in the large outdoor pool or relax in the sun on your private balcony.


The largest and most celebrated hotel in Cyprus, The Landmark Nicosia has been playing an important part in the country’s international image, since 1967. An elegant artwork of 60s architecture, it is famed for its highest standards of hospitality, the luxurious facilities, the 5-star service, which no other hotel in the city offers and its people, with their unparalleled professionalism and warm welcome smile. 52 years tradition in hospitality are all here, in The Landmark Nicosia, only even better now.


If you are arriving from the city center, take the Archbishop Makarios Avenue and head all the way straight where you will find the hotel on your right-hand side, after the 3rd set of traffic lights. If you are arriving from Larnaca International Airport, you have three options regarding your transfer.

Transfer to the hotel

  • We can arrange for your transfer from the airport: • Private Taxi at €55.00 per route inclusive of all taxes • Mini Bus for up to 10 persons at €120.00 per route tax-inclusive • Mini Bus for up to 15 persons at €190.00 per route tax-inclusive

Shuttle Bus

  • Catch the bus to Nicosia (ticket is €8.00/person). The bus drops you off about 5 minutes away from the hotel by taxi (for an additional charge of €5.00).

Rent a car

  • ASTRA Self Drive Cars Ltd is the oldest Car Rental Company on the island of Cyprus. Starting in 1946 with an “Ariel” motorcycle, it is the most established name in the car hire sector today, with a fleet of over 1,200 cars.


If you are arriving by car from the Airport, pass through the City of Larnaca and follow the signs towards Nicosia. Take highway A2 and exit at the 1st set of traffic lights, at the end of the highway. The hotel is on the left-hand side after the 5th traffic light.


During your stay at The Landmark Nicosia you can enjoy attractions such as:
  • Makarios Avenue shopping area
  • Old City
  • Archbishopric and Folk Art Museum
  • Cyprus Museum
  • Hadjigeorgakis House and the 18th century building from the Ottoman Empire
  • Leventis Municipal Museum of Nicosia
  • Loukia and Michael Zampelas Art Museum
  • Centre of Visual Arts and Research
  • Fairy Tale Museum

A DAY AT THE BEACH (driving time)

  • Mackenzie Beach, Larnaca (45 min)
  • Konnos Bay, Ayia Napa (1 hr)
  • Nissi Beach, Ayia Napa (1 hr)
  • Serena Bay, Protaras (1 hr)
  • Paramali Beach, Avdimou Village, Limassol (1 hr)
  • Aphrodite’s Rock and Beach, Paphos (1 hr, 15 min)
  • Lara Bay, Akamas Peninsula (2 hrs, 15 min)
  • Porto Pomos, Pomos (2 hrs, 30 min)


  • Close to Nicosia business district and the Cyprus International Conference Center
  • Extensive leisure facilities including indoor and outdoor pools
  • Business center
  • Conference and event spaces for up to 2,000 attendees
  • Free WiFi in all public areas of this award-winning hotel
  • TripAdvisor Travelers’ Choice Award winner 2018


Dedicated to excellence and committed to providing the best customer service possible, our hotel has been recognized as one of the most celebrated hotels in Cyprus. The awards can validate it. We have received awards and recognitions for our quality services and guest satisfaction by the world’s leading publications, travel magazines and consumer organizations. We feel honored and privileged to be awarded for our efforts.


Here you can find all our Hotel Policies regarding check-in/check-out times, cancellations, payment, and much more. For additional details, please contact the hotel to speak to one of our helpful team members.

Check-in / Check-out

• Check-in: 2:00p.m. • Check-out: 12:00p.m. • Minimum age to register: 18 • Early Departure Fee: To avoid early departure fees, please notify our hotel team 24hrs in advance. • Late Check-Out Fee: Until 6:00p.m. 50% of room rate. After 6:00p.m. one full night will be charged

Cancellation Policy

Cancellation policies may vary depending on the rate or dates of your reservation. Please refer to your reservation confirmation to verify your cancellation policy. If you need further assistance, call the hotel directly or contact the hotel. Alternatively, you can cancel your reservation online.


Hotel Currency: Euro Accepted payment options: American Express, Diner’s Club, JCB, MasterCard, Visa, Maestro, Discover Card, UnionPay.


• Non-Smoking • Smoking is not permitted in any of the guest rooms and indoor public areas. A €100 fine will apply for non-compliance.

Family children

• Children stay free of charge in parent’s room up to age 12.


• Free Parking Space Available • Valet: Available upon request

• Service animals allowed: Yes • Pets allowed: Yes • Service Fee (per stay): 50.00 € (Non-Refundable) • Maximum Size: Small

Varosha – A Ghost Town in Cyprus

The suburb of Varosha, or Maras, in the city of Famagusta was abandoned during the 1974 war in Cyprus. The area was sealed off by the invading Turkish forces and has remained so ever since. It appears to be frozen in time, the clothes still on the racks in the shops, homes and holiday apartments untouched for nearly 50 years. Some of the lights were even left on in the buildings for years after the evacuation.

To understand the story of Varosha though, it’s probably best to look at the history of Cyprus as a whole. In 1570, the Ottomans captured Cyprus and massacred many Greek and Armenian Christian inhabitants of the island. Under the Ottomans, the millet system was introduced under which non-Muslim peoples were governed by their own religious authorities. The Church of Cyprus, a branch of the Greek Orthodox Church, became the leader of the Greek Christians on the island. From then on, Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots would both call the island home.

A map of the Ottoman Empire. Both Turkey and Greece were part of the Empire at one stage. Greece gained independence in 1821 and Cyprus became a British crown colony in 1914.

After the Greek War of Independence in 1821, there were calls from many for a union between Greece and Cyprus. Enosis, as it was called, was fuelled by centuries of neglect and severe poverty under the Ottomans.

During the Congress of Berlin in 1878, following the Russo-Turkish War, Cyprus was was “leased” to the British Empire. It was at this Congress too that Austria-Hungary took over Bosnia & Herzegovina. Technically, the island still remained Ottoman territory but when the Ottoman Empire entered World War I in November 1914, the British Empire formally annexed Cyprus. The following year, the British offered Cyprus to King Constantine I of Greece in exchange for Greece entering the war on the side of the British but the king refused. After the war, the Turks withdrew all claim to Cyprus and it became a British crown colony in 1925.

The flag of British Cyprus.

Under British rule, the Greek Cypriots continued to argue for Enosis, a union with Greece. A militant group, Ethniki Organosis Kyprion Agoniston or National Organisation of Cypriot Fighters (EOKA), began an armed struggle to free themselves of British rule and merge with Greece. The Turkish Cypriots began to suggest partition as the best possible outcome, afraid that they would be forced into a unification with Greece against their will.

On 16 August 1960, Cyprus became an independent country following an agreement between Britain, Greece and Turkey. Not long after, violence erupted between the two sides. Turkey threatened to invade the island in 1964 to protect the Turkish minority but US President Lyndon B. Johnson wrote a strongly worded telegram warning against it, fearing the Soviet Union would intervene on behalf of Greece. King Constantine II responded by dispatching 10,000 troops to Cyprus and calling for a “a speedy union with the mother country”.

Archbishop Makarios III, the first president of Cyprus.

On 15 July 1974, president Makarios III of Cyprus was ousted in a coup d’état orchestrated by the Greek military junta. Their plan was to force the country into the union with Greece. In response, the Turkish army invaded the island five days later on 20 July 1974 to restore the constitutional order agreed in 1960. The Turks captured an area from Kyrenia on the northern coast, down to the Turkish areas of the capital Nicosia. A ceasefire was quickly agreed and the constitution was restored with a temporary leadership placed in charge until such time that Makarios III could return having fled during the initial coup. Despite the ceasefire, a second Turkish invasion occurred on August 14 and this time, they took further territory in the northern part of the island, including the city of Famagusta.

An abandoned hotel in Varosha. | Image: Shanomag via Wikimedia Commons

It was during this invasion that Varosha was evacuated and sealed off. Up until then, Varosha has been an affluent, tourist area with hotels, restaurants and bars. It was popular among travellers from north and west Europe, as well as wealthy Greeks. During the Turkish invasion, the majority Greek Cypriot population fled the fighting between the Greek and Turkish armies in Famagusta, helped by the British military who had kept their bases on the island since the time it was a crown colony. Many refugees fled south to Paralimni, Dherynia and Larnaca. The Turkish army fenced off Varosha and refused to let anyone in.

A sign in Turkish says Maras and below it, Varosha in Greek.

An abandoned Orthodox Church in Varosha.

Barrels act as a barrier to stop anyone entering the abandoned church in Varosha.

Following the invasion, a UN Buffer Zone was created to separate the island. 180,000 Greek Cypriots had been evicted from their homes in the north and 50,000 Turkish Cypriots were displaced from the south. Nicosia Airport, in the middle of the buffer zone, was taken over by the UN.

In 1983, the northern side of the island declared itself independent as the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. It is not recognised by any UN member except for Turkey. In 2004, a peace plan drafted by the UN Secretary General Kofi Annan was put to a referendum prior to Cyprus entering the European Union. The Turkish side voted for the plan and the Greeks voted against. Since then, reunification talks have been held between both sides although as time goes on, more observers have suggested that partition may be the best solution.

There has been talk recently about reopening Varosha however this has yet to amount to anything. For now, the former favourite holiday spot of celebrities like Elizabeth Taylor, Richard Burton and Brigitte Bardot remains abandoned.

Archbishop Makarios II

Archbishop Makarios III of Cyprus became the nation's first President when Britain granted the island independence in 1959. In his three terms (1959-1977), he survived four assassination attempts and a 1974 coup. Born Michael Mouskos, Makarios was elected bishop of Kition in 1948 and archbishop of Cyprus in 1950. Leader of the Greek Cypriots in the movement for enosis (union with Greece), he was exiled by the British in 1956 on charges of encouraging terrorism.

In 1958 he begins to press for Cypriot independence from Great Britain rather than union with Greece. When an agreement is reached on the independence of Cyprus, he is elected president. He pursues a neutralist policy, favoring a peaceful solution between the island's Greek and Turkish communities.

In 1972 he came under increasing pressure from the Greek government to allow for greater Greek influence in Cypriot affairs the Cypriot Orthodox Church pressured him to resign if he failed to do so. Gen. George Grivas (also in photo), leader of the enosis movement, launched a terrorist campaign aimed at overthrowing Makarios, finally succeeding in July of 1974, when a Greek Junta-sponsored coup deposes Makarios declaring that he is dead in the rubble of his palace. But shortly thereafter Makarios's voice is heard on the radio telling his people that he is alive and that they should resist the leaders of the coup. When Turkey invades the island it precipitates the fall of the Junta in Athens. After several months of exile he returns to Cyprus and resumes the presidency.

When Makarios died in August of 1977 of a heart attack the funeral is interrupted by a rainstorm, unheard of in Cyprus for that month. Some call it a miracle. Greek Cypriot newspaper refer to the extraordinary event as proving an old Greek proverb, that when a good man is buried, even the heavens shed tears. A Turkish Cypriot newspaper however, said that the un-seasonal rain had proved an old Turkish proverb, that when an evil man is buried, the heavens open to wash away his misdeeds. Regardless of what people thought of him, Makarios' leadership created an identity for Cypriots that went beyond being Greek or Turkish.


Mihail Christodoulou Mouskos was born in Paphos, Cyprus on 13 August 1913, the son of a peasant, and he became a novice monk. After studying in Athens and in the United States, however, he decided to become a priest. He was ordained in 1946 and became a bishop in 1948. As Archbishop of the Orthodox Church of Cyprus, he was the leading figure to propagate Enosis, union with Greece. He cooperated with EOKA in its desire to rid the island of its British occupation, and he was deported to the Seychelles in 1956. as leader of the Greek Cypriot community, he accepted the British offer of independence within the Commonwealth, instead of union with Greece. For this he was opposed by his former allies, EOKA, during his presidency. The latter instigated a coup against him, in conjunction with the Regime of the Colonels. He was forced into exile, but when the coup failed owing to the Turkish invasion of parts of the island, he returned to hold office until his death.

Tzipru de su Norte

Tzipru de su Norte o Repùblica turca de Tzipru de su Norte (incurtzadu RTCN) in turcu Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti (incurtzdu in Kuzey Kıbrıs), in gregu modernu Τουρκική Δημοκρατία της Βόρειας Κύπρου (incurtzadu in Βόρεια Κύπρος o ΤΔΒΚ), est unu istadu non reconnotu, foras dae sa Turchia, chi ocupat su chirru setentrionale de s'ìsula de Tzipru. At proclamadu indipendèntzia su 15 de onniasantu 1983, noe annos a pustis de s'ocupatzione militare de sa parte setentrionale de s'ìsula, acuntessida in su 1974 e trubada dae sa Turchia in reatzione contra sa voluntade proclamada dae unu grupu de uffitziales de sa guardia natzionale tzipriota (su EOKA-B, ghiadu dae Níkos Sampsón), de torrare a aunire politicamente s'ìsula a sa Grèghia, a fatu de unu corpu de istadu in ue aiant depostu su presidente Mikhaíl Makarios.

S'istadu tenet istèrrida de 3,355 km2 e populatzione de unos 286.300 bividores.

Sa Turchia est galu solu istadu chi ddu reconnoschet e chi dd'apoderet militarmente, economicamente, demograficamente e diplomaticamente. S'ONU e su Cunsìgiu de Europa cunsiderant Tzipru Norte che sa parte setentrionale de sa Repùblica de Tzipru, « ocupada dae sa Turchia ». Is fortzas armadas turcas bi sighint a tènnere unos 30.000 sordados e sa Turchia bi at favoressidu s'acusorgiamentu de unos 120.000 colonos anatòlicos dae su 1979.

In su 2004, in bista de s'adillida de sa Repùblica de Tzupru a s'Unione Europea, unu pranu de re-aunimentu propostu dae s'ONU, naradu pranu Annan, est istadu sutapostu a referendum. Su pranu est atzetadu dae su 65% de is tzipriotos turcos, sende chi permitet unu reconnoschimentu legale e autonomia territoriale in sinu a s'istadu tzipriotu. Est però istadu refudadu dae su 75% de s'eletoradu tzipriotu gregu, ca pro ite lìmitat a su 33% su nùmeru de refugiados autorizados a torrare a is domos issoro e a pigare duncas possessu de is benes chi ddis apartenent. Custu resultadu impedumat su re-aunimetu polìticu de s'ìsulae su reconnoschimentu internatzionale de sa parte ocupada dae sa Turchia: de facto sa zona turca non faghet parte de s'Unione Europea e est escluida de s'unione econòmica, monetària, fiscale o doganale e de is acòrdios de Schengen de chi faghet parte de jure sa Repùblica Tzipriota. Unu àteru elementu chi blocat su re-aunimentu de s'ìsula (e de cunsighidu s'adillida de sa Turchia a s'Unione Europea) est su fatu ca sa Turchia non reconnoschet sa repùblica Tzipriota.

Dae su 2004 comente chi siat, s'organizatzione de sa cunferèntzia islàmica ocordat a s'istadu turcu de Tzipru Norte s'istatutu de osservadore suta nùmene de « Istadu turcu de Tzipru ». Sa Gàmbia e su Pakistan sunt is raros istados presentantes s'augùriu de cunsiderare Tzipru Norte unu istadu a parte a totu is efetos.


His Eminence, the Most Reverend Makarios (Tillyrides) is the Metropolitan of Kenya, in eastern Africa, part of the Church of Alexandria. His see is in Nairobi, with jurisdiction over Kenya.

In 1945, the future archbishop was born Andreas Tillyrides in Limassol, Cyprus. He studied extensively before entering the clergy. In 1968, he began his studies at the Orthodox Theological Institute of St. Sergius in Paris, France, graduating in 1972. While pursuing his education in Paris, he also studied at the College of France and the Ecole Practique des Hautes Etudes at the Sorbonne in Paris. In September 1972, he continued post graduate studies in Church History under Kallistos Ware, Bishop of Dioklea, at Oxford University in Great Britain, receiving a Doctor of Philosophy degree in 1976.

He continued his post-doctoral education as a research student at the Louvain-la-Neuve in Belgium between the years of 1978 and 1981, studying religion and church history. During this period Andreas was asked in January 1977 by Archbishop Makarios III of Cyprus to organize and open an Orthodox seminary in Nairobi, Kenya, thus introducing him to development of Orthodoxy in sub-Saharan Africa.

For more than ten years, Andreas participated, as a lay-theologian, in inter-ecclesiastical and inter-Orthodox conferences as well as with various religious organizations in the middle east.

On July 19, 1992, Andreas Tillyrides was tonsured a monk, with the name Makarios and ordained a deacon in the Church of St Nicholas in Riruta, Nairobia by the Patriarchal Exarch of East Africa, Metropolitan of Axum Petros. His ordination as a deacon was followed on the next day, July 20, by his ordination as a priest. On July 25, 1992, Fr. Makarios was consecrated Bishop of Riruta by Metr. Petros and Bishop Theodoros of Uganda.

On September 13, 1998, Bp. Makarios was elected Metropolitan Archbishop of Zimbabwe, and then assigned in February 2001 to the see in Nairobi of the Archdiocese of Kenya as Archbishop of Kenya.

Abp. Makarios is a proficient linguist, speaking, in addition to his native Greek, English, French, Russian, Italian, as well as a number of African dialects. He has written extensively, primarily on past and current ecclesiastical history of the ancient patriarchates, Cyprus, and Russia. He has served as dean and taught at the Orthodox Patriarchal Seminary of Archbishop Makarios III in Nairobi. While dean of the seminary he initiated a program whereby the students translated the Orthodox services into more than fifteen African dialects.

Abp. Makarios has spoken that his missionary efforts are not proselytizing but done through invitations to the people to come to see what the Orthodox services are like and then make their decisions. He combines both the Greek language and the local dialect in his services.



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