Heath Hen AMC-6 - History

Heath Hen AMC-6 - History


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Heath Hen

(AMC-6: dp. 270; 1. 94'4"; b. 22'; dr. 8'6"; s. 9 k.; cpl. 16)

Heath Hen (AMC-6) a wooden dragger, was built in 1936 by A. D. Storey, Fairhaven, Mass., as Noreen, acquired by the Navy 18 October 1940 and renamed Heath Hen (AMC-6): converted to a coastal minesweeper and commissioned 20 January 1941.

The small ship served in the 5th Naval District until 16 March 1944 when she arrived Provincetown. Mass., for duty with the Naval Mine Test Facility. Redesignated small boat C-13538, her name was dropped and she served as C- 13538 in mine warfare experiments until damaged by an oil explosion 16 March 1945. She was subsequently turned over to the Maritime Commission and sold 10 May 1948.


Explore The Delicious History of Ice Cream

On her website ToriAvey.com, Tori Avey explores the story behind the food – why we eat what we eat, how the recipes of different cultures have evolved, and how yesterday’s recipes can inspire us in the kitchen today. Learn more about Tori and The History Kitchen.

If you grew up in America, odds are you know this little foodie rhyme:

“You scream! I scream! We all scream for ice cream!”

For most Americans, the phrase “ice cream” conjures up memories of summer, like slurping melted cones, banana splits, hot fudge sundaes, root beer floats, and buying a scoop from the drug store when it only cost a dime. Ice cream is the ultimate old fashioned treat. This dessert has a very worldly history that stretches all around the globe. In India, there’s kulfi. In Italy, gelato. In Japan, mochi. It seems every country has its own spin on the delicious frozen confection we Americans call ice cream. This sweet stuff gets around! So where exactly did it come from?

There are several myths about the origin of ice cream. Some say Marco Polo brought it back from his travels to the Far East. Others say that Catherine de Medici introduced it to France when she relocated to marry King Henry II. Neither tale is likely to be true, though both are romantic. In fact, ice cream has a much more ancient history. Its earliest form holds very little resemblance to the ice cream we eat today. Biblical passages refer to King Solomon enjoying cooling iced drinks during harvest season. Alexander the Great of ancient Greece loved to indulge in icy drinks flavored with honey or wine. During Nero’s reign of Rome from 54 – 68 BC, ice was harvested from nearby mountains and held in “ice houses”—deep pits covered with straw. This practice of keeping ice in lieu of refrigeration would be common for centuries to come.

The earliest forms of ice cream bear little resemblance to the creamy sweet stuff inside your freezer.

The emperors of the Tang Dynasty (618 – 907 AD) are believed to have been the first to eat “a frozen milk-like confection.” This version was made with cow, goat or buffalo milk that was heated with flour. Camphor, an aromatic substance harvested from evergreen trees, was added to enhance the texture and flavor. The mixture was then placed into metal tubes and lowered into an ice pool until frozen. This process is similar to the way Indians made kulfi prior to refrigeration.

In medieval times, Arabs drank an icy refreshment called sherbet, or sharabt in Arabic. These chilled drinks were often flavored with cherry, pomegranate, or quince. Over time, the drinks became popular with the European aristocracy. Italians are said to have mastered this drink-making technique, with the French following suit shortly after.

The 17th century saw ice drinks being made into frozen desserts. With the addition of sugar, sorbetto was created—or, as we more commonly know it, sorbet. Antonio Latini (1642–1692), a man working for a Spanish Viceroy in Naples, is credited with being the first person to write down a recipe for sorbetto. He is also responsible for creating a milk-based sorbet, which most culinary historians consider the first “official” ice cream.

Fruit Sorbet

In 1686, a Sicilian named Francesco Procopio dei Coltelli opened Paris’ first café, Il Procope. The establishment became a meeting place for many famous intellectuals, including Benjamin Franklin, Victor Hugo and Napoleon. The café introduced gelato, the Italian version of sorbet, to the French public. It was served in small porcelain bowls resembling egg cups. Procopio became known as the “Father of Italian Gelato.”

Around the same time, the French began experimenting with a frozen dessert called fromage. French confectioner Nicolas Audiger, in his book “La maison reglée,” describes several fromage recipes made from ices flavored with fruit. One early recipe includes cream, sugar and orange flower water. Audiger also suggests stirring ices during the freezing process to introduce air and create a fluffier texture. Despite the dessert’s name, fromage was not made from cheese. It’s not completely clear why they called it fromage. The word may refer to the cheese molds that were used to freeze the ice cream, or it may simply be a lax French term for any compressed or molded edible substance. Whatever the reason, during the 18th century frozen fromage became quite popular throughout France.

An antique ice cream maker

It is impossible to say how exactly ice cream reached America, but it likely arrived with European settlers in the early 1700’s. By this time, several books on confectionery had been produced and included recipes for ices and ice cream. Housewives would serve these treats to guests in the shape of vegetables, fruits and animals, thanks to special ice cream molds. In 1790, the first ice cream parlor opened in New York. During the summer of the same year, our first president, George Washington, is said to have spent $200 to satisfy his craving for the refreshing treat. Inventory records of his Mt. Vernon home also indicate that he owned several ice cream pots made from tin and pewter. Thomas Jefferson is said to have kept several ice houses, able to hold up to 62 wagonloads of ice, along with copious amounts of ice cream. Even the Lincolns had a taste for the cold stuff. Before and during his presidency, Abraham Lincoln’s wife Mary Todd frequently hosted “strawberry parties” for friends in both Springfield, Illinois and Washington to celebrate berry season. Fresh ripe strawberries were served with cake and you guessed it ice cream.

Though its history spans worldwide and over centuries, ice cream has made itself quite comfortable in America, becoming one of the most popular desserts in the country. A staggering 9% of American cow’s milk production is dedicated to ice cream. Apple pie might be the most traditionally American dessert, but what is served as its most popular sidekick? Vanilla ice cream, of course! This creamy iced treat has firmly planted itself in the hearts of foodies across America.


Natural History

Yesterday, Thanksgiving was celebrated in the United States.

We base this holiday on the harvest celebration and smörgåsbord that the English Separatists (which we Americans have always called “Pilgrims”) put on after their first successful summer in the New World.

The “Pilgrims” ate lots of different things in their 1621 Thanksgiving feast that they shared with the Wampanoag people, who had shared food with them during that first winter. Prominent among them were the “wild Turkies” that were easily dispatched. In every account of the feast that I have read, there is a mention of wild fowl, with waterfowl and turkeys getting special mention.

William Bradford specifically mentions the “great store of wild turkeys” that were served in the event in Of Plymouth Plantation:

Thus they found the Lord to be with them in all their ways, and to bless their outgoings and incomings, for which let His holy name have the praise forever, to all posterity. They began now to gather in the small harvest they had, and to fit up their houses and dwellings against winter, being all well recovered in health and strength and had all things in good plenty. For as some were thus employed in affairs abroad, others were exercised in fishing, about cod and bass and other fish, of which they took good store, of which every family had their portion. All the summer there was no want and now began to come in store of fowl, as winter approached, of which this place did abound when they came first (but afterward decreased by degrees). And besides waterfowl there was great store of wild turkeys, of which they took many, besides venison, etc. Besides, they had about a peck a meal a week to a person, or now since harvest, Indian corn to the proportion. Which made many afterwards write so largely of their plenty here to their friends in England, which were not feigned but true reports.

Because the turkeys were so prominent in that meal, Thanksgiving in the US always features a turkey as the main course. Never mind that the turkey that most of eat is as different from the Eastern wild turkey that the “Pilgrims” and the Wampanoag ate as the St. Bernard is from the coyote.

It is our tradition– part of our national lore. Of course, before turkeys became mass produced, pork featured more prominently as the main course. Hogs were ubiquitous, and November was always the traditional hog butchering month. Mass-production of big-breasted domestic turkeys has meant that the turkey will be synonymous with Thanksgiving.

But perhaps our view of the turkey and Thanksgiving are a bit distorted. While it is certainly true that wild turkey was very common and very easily killed in the first days of English colonization of what became New England, but it did not take long for their numbers to become rapidly depleted. English naturalist John Josselyn wrote in 1672 that the “Turkie” was nearly gone from New England, and that it had been 30 years since he had seen any wild turkeys. If one does the math, the wild turkey went from being extremely common to very rare in New England within twenty years of the First Thanksgiving.

If one also reads Josselyn’s account carefully, wild turkeys had an interesting relationship with the New England Indians. The animals lived in settlements, coming and going as they please and were the original free-range poultry. They lived near their houses as tame as any English turkey.

That behavior is very different from modern wild turkeys, which are very wary of our species. They are very hard to hunt even when one illegally baits them in with corn. After all, these wild turkeys have been selected from that wild population in the same way wolves have. Only the most wary birds survived our unscrupulous and profligate depredations. At one point, only 30,000 wild turkeys remained,most of them hiding our in remote areas, where market hunters couldn’t blast them out of trees, and all the birds that exist now are descended from these extremely wary individuals.

But the story of the turkey in New England is bit ephemeral.

And while it’s true that the original European settlers of New England and the East Coast did enjoy a great bounty of turkeys, it is another bird that was likely consumed in that first Thanksgiving that would have a much longer-lasted impact upon the diet and lifestyle of those first Europeans to colonize our continent.

It is because of the importance of this bird to so many of the first colonists that we should consider its role in our history more carefully. Perhaps it deserves the title of the founding bird of our country. Our founding feather, if you will.

It is the bird poorly depicted at the top of this post and the subject of my early query.

It no longer exists in any form on the East Coast, but at the time of settlement it was unbelievably common from the New Hampshire coast to the northern parts of Virginia.

I am referring to the heath hen (Tympanuchus cupido cupido). In the early accounts, this bird is called a grouse or a partridge. Unfortunately, those terms have also historically referred to the ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus), and that common name makes it difficult to tell which species the writer is actually referring to.

The heath hen was very common on the east coast. Ruffed grouse tend be found a bit more inland, but they vaguely look a like. The heath hen was called a partridge by those first settlers, and when they encountered the ruffed grouse as they came inland, they likely gave it the same name. That is most likely why the ruffed grouse is called a partridge in so many part of the US.

The heath hen was found in the “heaths” that were found adjacent to the coast. “Heath” is an archaic term for what we now call pine barrens or pinelands.

In those pine barrens were a vast multitude of grouse that were so easily killed that they made up a definite staple of the colonists’ diet. They were commonly killed to feed hireed servants, slaves, and those held in indenture. They were a major source of protein, and when other game species became rare and imported livestock proved less than hardy, they could always turn to the little heath hens for meat. Without game birds, it would have been harder for Europeans to settle the East Coast, and it is from those settlements that our nation was eventually founded.

Now, these birds were not adapted to living in forests. The pinelands on which they lived were subject to regular fires, which left large open tracts of land for the birds. When this area became colonized, fires were no longer allowed to burn out of control. Unable to adapt to the lack of open tracts within the pinelands, the birds started to become rare. When European man stopped allowing fires to burn, the heath hen lost its prime habitat. The fact that they were hunted so extensively for food just compounded their problems.

But unlike the turkey, their numbers didn’t drop as precipitously. Their existence as common food source lasted at least through the first century of colonization. The birds became rare in New York in the late eighteenth century, and in 1791, the New York legislature tried to offer them legal protection– the first game law in the country’s history.

However, they were still common enough through most of their range to be hunted for food until the beginning of the nineteenth century, but by 1840’s, the birds became quite rare. It is believed that they were entirely extinct on the mainland by 1870. A relict population of 300 birds remained on Martha’s Vineyard, but these were in trouble. The birds were still occasionally poached, and a predation from the island’s feral cats was taking its upon them.

By the beginning of the twentieth century, those 300 birds had become 70. After setting up a heath hen preserve in 1908, the birds did recover. By the middle of the 1910’s, the were an estimated 2,000 heath hens on Martha’s Vineyard.

I see your eyebrows going up. Whenever you start with such a low founding population, genetic diversity issues can’t be far off. Because this was an island population, it was not as adapted to predation, and when goshawks suddenly began to colonize Martha’s Vineyard, the heath hens didn’t exactly know what to do. Then blackhead disease hit. Perhaps the lack of diversity in the Martha’s Vineyard heath hen MHC made them susceptible to the disease, or perhaps because they were an island population, they had never been exposed to the disease at all and were as highly susceptible to the disease as Native Americans were to small pox. Because chickens were found on Martha’s Vineyard for centuries before the big heath hen epidemic, it seems that the lack of diversity of MHC genes is the more plausible theory.

Whatever it was, only 600 heath hens remained on Martha’s Vineyard by 1920. For some reason, perhaps related to their low genetic diversity, clutch after clutch began to produce a very high ratio of roosters to hens. Within just a few years, the number of heath hens dropped precipitously, and because of the weird sex ratio in the clutches, the majority of the remaining birds were male. In 1927, only a dozen birds remained, and only two were female. Then, in 1928, only a single male remained. He was last seen in 1932, and when he died, the whole species became extinct.

I had no real concept of what a heath hen was.

I’m an Easterner, and I vaguely remember hearing about a bird called a prairie chicken on a Marty Stouffer nature documentary.

I did not connect prairie chickens and the heath hen in my mind.

However, when I put the Linnaean name for the extinct heath hen, I bet you noticed that it included a subspecies name. The reason why I wrote that subspecies name is that the heath hen is now classified as a subspecies of greater prairie chicken (Tympanuchus cupido), which although not as common as it once was, is still extant.

Some debate on this taxonomy still exists, because in the genus Tympanuchus, there are four extant species: the aforementioned greater prairie chicken, the lesser prairie chicken (T. pallidicinctus) , and the sharp-tailed grouse (T. phasianellus). They are all genetically and morphologically distinct, but they are not that different genetically. One argument goes that if the lesser prairie chicken is different enough from greater prairie chicken to be considered a separate species, then the heath hen was a distinct species, because it was somewhat genetically distinct from the greater prairie chicken and was adapted to live in a very different part of the country.

People have brought prairie chickens to the east and released them, and they have failed to thrive. It has been suggested that the prairie chickens can’t handle our climate. However, it is more likely that they can’t handle living in an area that has a mixture of cultivation and dense forests, which is exactly what most of the land in the East became.

However, the consensus now is that the heath was the East Coast subspecies of the greater prairie chicken.

Which means that it didn’t go extinct.

Only the subspecies that lived on the East Coast did.

I have thought about this story a bit as I’ve been researching endangered species conservation. Perhaps those conservationists on Martha’s Vineyard could have imported some greater prairie chickens from the West to augment their relict population of heath hens. It would have been worth a shot, and it probably would have been the only thing that would have saved them.

However, because the pinelands of the East Coast no longer are allowed to exist as they did before colonization, it is probably unlikely that the birds would have survived anyway. Because fire kept open large tracts of land in the heaths, these prairie birds were able to live in the East. The nearest population of greater prairie chicken to the heath hen was in western Ohio, where the tall grass prairie ecosystem began.

The heath hen couldn’t survive in a place that was both densely forested and intensively cultivated. Like all prairie chickens, it needs expanses of open land that are not intensely farmed. Those places are not that common anywhere in the East.

All prairie chickens are in trouble. Their numbers have dropped rather dramatically since settlement.. These birds do not thrive in areas that are intensively cultivated. They require unspoiled prairies to thrive, and those areas are simply not that common anywhere.

The subspecies of greater prairie chicken that was our founding bird has gone extinct, and if we are not a bit more careful, the other greater prairie chickens and their lesser prairie chicken cousins might follow them.

Of course, the turkey’s story wound up being quite different. Although reduced to tiny relict populations within the first decades of colonization on the East Coast, the wild turkey has made a dramatic comeback. Today, eastern wild turkeys can be found throughout New England, but they are still uncommon in the northern parts of the region (and probably always were). Currently, the population of wild turkeys is estimated to be over 7 million birds. The eastern subspecies has essentially been restored to all of its native range, which includes parts of Ontario, Quebec, the Maritimes, and a bit of Manitoba.

They aren’t quasi-domesticated, though. Although there are some wild turkeys that come into towns, they are not nearly as tame as the ones Josselyn described. Centuries of profligate hunting practices have made them wary. Paranoia is now part of their DNA.

The turkey was able to be saved in part because it was so symbolic. Benjamin Franklin once satirically argued that the wild turkey should be our national bird, which turkey conservationist instantly picked up to help their cause. And it doesn’t bug me in the least that they did that.

However, the prairie chicken folks haven’t been quite as successful at capturing the imaginations of the American public. If only they would use the story of the heath hen to their advantage to talk about the importance of these unique birds to our nation’s history, we might be able to have another native game bird success story.

If we believe we are saving our founding bird by preserving prairie chickens, then we will have the support necessary to preserve them for generations to come.


The Lost Bird Project

The other night, Ms. Jeannie watched a documentary and fell in love with big birds. Five in particular. This is one of them…

The documentary was called The Lost Bird Project and was about an artist who set out to memorialize five birds that are now extinct from our environment.

Inspired, after reading the book, Hope Is The Thing With Feathers (great title!) by Christopher Cokinos, sculptor Todd McGrain built man-size sculptures of five particular birds that are no longer living in the natural world. He wanted the birds to be not only memorials for something now lost, but also educational pieces that would make people pause and reflect about their own individual roles in the hands of nature.

The five birds he chose were:

The Carolina Parakeet, extinct since 1918, was highly sought after by the millinery industry for their bright feathers. This statue was placed at Kissimmee Prairie Preserve State Park in Okeechobee, FL. Photo courtesy of lostbirdfilm.org Carolina Parakeet. Photo courtesy of extinct-website.com. The passenger pigeon, extinct by 1914, saw its main decline due to hunting. This statue was placed at Grange Audubon Center in Columbus, Ohio. Photo courtesy of lostbirdfilm.org Passenger Pigeons. Photo courtesy of rareprintsgallery.com The Heath Hen, extinct since 1932 due to hunting, predators and development was last seen in the wild on Martha’s Vineyard. The last one living by himself on the Vineyard for years, constantly called for mates with no replies. This statue was placed in Manuel F. Correllus State Forest in Martha’s Vineyard, MA. Photo courtesy of lostbirdfilm.org Heath Hen. Photo courtesy of nhptv.org The Labrador Duck, extinct since 1878, was most likely demolished by a lack of food supply due to coastal industry expansion. This statue was placed at Brand Park in Elmira, New York. Photo courtesy of lostbirdfilm.org. Labrador Ducks. Photo courtesy of mcq.org The Great Auk has been extinct since 1844. Ever present seabirds, they mated for life and found refuge in rocky terrains off coastal waterways. Their greatest predator was man who would use them for food source, oil and feathers. This statue was placed at Joe Batt’s Point at Fogo Island in Newfoundland. Photo courtesy of lostbirdfilm.org The Great Auk. Photo courtesy of itsnature.org

The documentary presents a wonderful arc of a story from creation of the sculptures through dealing with the bureaucratic red tape of state “gifting” to seeing the sculptures placed in the areas intended by the artist (where the real birds were actually last seen).

Compelling, doesn’t begin to describe the subject matter and at the heart of the story is one man’s quest for genuine expression. It is humble. It is grand. It is remarkable. And it makes you think about nature around us… the common sights and sounds we live with everyday… and all that we might just be taking for granted.

Here’s a trailer for the documentary…

If you’d like to find out more about the project and the artist , visit the film website here. If you happen to live near or have been to see any of the bird statues, please comment below with your thoughts – Ms. Jeannie would love to hear.


Are these decent lifters?

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AMC Addicted

I built my first AMC engine shortly after leaded gasoline disappeared and detonation took out 7 out 8 pistons. At that time as I remember the MOPAR vs AMC lifter question was one of where the oil hole was in the lifter as some MOPAR lifters had it higher or lower (time does not do memories much justice) and if it was in the wrong location you ended up with Lifter problems. Thus compare the location between what you took out vs what you are getting ready to put in. That said I bought lifters with my Iskenderian cam and verified that was not a problem.
My thinking was then and is now that the cam manufacture should have the knowledge as to what is the right lifter to use with a cam they are making for my engine. I might consider myself knowledgeable enough to assemble parts or maybe even determine what I want done and then request it, but for the most part, the parts people or the machine shop contracted "should" be more aware of things than I am. Camshaft manufacturers stand behind their products and want them to be installed with compatible parts.
Buying parts from Dick and then Jane does not nescissarily insure that.
Looking at some of the claims on parts today though seems to me that hype predominates as to what they can and would do.
I do not build $50,000.00 NASCAR engines and do not have the equipment to verify that a GEE-Whiz claim is even valid considering the creative information obtained from a leading CAM manufacturer that just came in my e-mail, my latest intake manifold is (as close as I can tell) a genuine Chinese knock off of an Edelbrock Air Gap purchased to go on my $300.00 Mercury Marine motor and bought with a limited budget which lets me afford to do what I enjoy! Build another engine. I buy Iskenderian cams because of History and they work. I buy lifters from them to go with the cam. The engine runs the way the math says and verifies that they should, I use either a recognized branded machine shop for machining as they have data that has been used over and over again to insure fit with out a problem or a recommendation from some one who has is familiar with a shops work. Face it, a recommendation from another AMC builder is getting scarcer then hen's teeth. And I generally due my own assembly because I can, have the tools for it and can verify what I need to verify.
I tune them myself and they will pass smog, be reliable and in general fast. Although my latest engine probably will not pass smog. But I will try it anyway. And then go to plan "B".
I build myself a street motor and it will rarely if ever see a drag strip. And if it does? It will because it has become part of the hobby. Not an objective. I still own and drive one I built in late 1970's where the machining was done by a machine shop that specialized in building off road engines when AMC sourced Jeeps were still active in off road racing in Riverside California and another machined by an independent now out of business. And it is a 6 and turns in the area of 4500 rpm on a regular basis. (it runs out of cam shortly after that)
And neither have developed oil problems or distributor drive problems. And the V8 does not have any of the "recommended" oil modifications done to it. At the time I did not feel they were worth the expense and still don't. I have a 360 that will follow the same pattern.
I just do not see lifters and being the root source of oil pressure problems.
But I will continue to purchase lifters with the cam that I choose to purchase.

Supporter of TheAMCForum

Sonic: go to Clay Smith Cams web page

As I stated earlier, my Bullet lifters measured closer to .904 than .903, even though they said .903 Mopar on the box.

Supporter of TheAMCForum

I built my first AMC engine shortly after leaded gasoline disappeared and detonation took out 7 out 8 pistons. At that time as I remember the MOPAR vs AMC lifter question was one of where the oil hole was in the lifter as some MOPAR lifters had it higher or lower (time does not do memories much justice) and if it was in the wrong location you ended up with Lifter problems. Thus compare the location between what you took out vs what you are getting ready to put in. That said I bought lifters with my Iskenderian cam and verified that was not a problem.
My thinking was then and is now that the cam manufacture should have the knowledge as to what is the right lifter to use with a cam they are making for my engine. I might consider myself knowledgeable enough to assemble parts or maybe even determine what I want done and then request it, but for the most part, the parts people or the machine shop contracted "should" be more aware of things than I am. Camshaft manufacturers stand behind their products and want them to be installed with compatible parts.
Buying parts from Dick and then Jane does not nescissarily insure that.
Looking at some of the claims on parts today though seems to me that hype predominates as to what they can and would do.
I do not build $50,000.00 NASCAR engines and do not have the equipment to verify that a GEE-Whiz claim is even valid considering the creative information obtained from a leading CAM manufacturer that just came in my e-mail, my latest intake manifold is (as close as I can tell) a genuine Chinese knock off of an Edelbrock Air Gap purchased to go on my $300.00 Mercury Marine motor and bought with a limited budget which lets me afford to do what I enjoy! Build another engine. I buy Iskenderian cams because of History and they work. I buy lifters from them to go with the cam. The engine runs the way the math says and verifies that they should, I use either a recognized branded machine shop for machining as they have data that has been used over and over again to insure fit with out a problem or a recommendation from some one who has is familiar with a shops work. Face it, a recommendation from another AMC builder is getting scarcer then hen's teeth. And I generally due my own assembly because I can, have the tools for it and can verify what I need to verify.
I tune them myself and they will pass smog, be reliable and in general fast. Although my latest engine probably will not pass smog. But I will try it anyway. And then go to plan "B".
I build myself a street motor and it will rarely if ever see a drag strip. And if it does? It will because it has become part of the hobby. Not an objective. I still own and drive one I built in late 1970's where the machining was done by a machine shop that specialized in building off road engines when AMC sourced Jeeps were still active in off road racing in Riverside California and another machined by an independent now out of business. And it is a 6 and turns in the area of 4500 rpm on a regular basis. (it runs out of cam shortly after that)
And neither have developed oil problems or distributor drive problems. And the V8 does not have any of the "recommended" oil modifications done to it. At the time I did not feel they were worth the expense and still don't. I have a 360 that will follow the same pattern.
I just do not see lifters and being the root source of oil pressure problems.
But I will continue to purchase lifters with the cam that I choose to purchase.

AMC Addicted


History

Although the term &ldquoOne Health&rdquo is fairly new, the concept has long been recognized both nationally and globally. Since the 1800s, scientists have noted the similarity in disease processes among animals and humans, but human and animal medicine were practiced separately until the 20th century. In recent years, through the support of key individuals and vital events, the One Health concept has gained more recognition in the public health and animal health communities.

Click on a year below to learn more about the important people and events in the history of One Health.

Timeline: People and Events in One Health

The Second International One Health Congress is held in conjunction with the Prince Mahidol Award Conference

From January 29 through February 2, 2013, the second International One Health Congress was held in conjunction with the Prince Mahidol Award Conference. With more than 1,000 attendees from over 70 countries, it was the largest One Health conference to date. The conference encouraged collaboration across disciplines to promote effective policy development related to human, animal, and environmental health.

The Global Risk Forum sponsors the first One Health Summit

February 19-22, 2012, the first One Health Summit was held in Davos, Switzerland. The Summit presented the One Health concept as a way to manage health threats, focusing on food safety and security. The conference ended by approving the &ldquoDavos One Health Action Plan,&rdquo which pinpointed ways to improve public health through multi-sectoral and multi-stakeholder cooperation.

The High Level Technical Meeting to Address Health Risks at the Human-Animal-Ecosystem Interface Builds Political Will for The One Health Movement

The Tripartite organized a high-level technical meeting in Mexico City November 15-17, 2011. The focus of this meeting was to address health risks that occur in different geographic regions by highlighting three priority One Health topics&mdashrabies, influenza, and antimicrobial resistance. These topics served as a basis to discuss what needs to be done to build political will and more actively engage ministers of health in the One Health movement.

The First International One Health Congress is Held in Melbourne, Australia

February 14-16, 2011, the first International One Health Congress was held in Melbourne, Australia. More than 650 people from 60 countries and a range of disciplines came together to discuss the benefits of working together to promote a One Health approach. In addition to understanding the interdependence of human, animal, and environmental health, attendees agreed that it is important to include other disciplines such as economics, social behavior, and food security and safety.

The European Union Reaffirms its Commitment to Operate Under a One Health Umbrella

In August 2010, the European Union published the &ldquoOutcome and Impact Assessment of the Global Response to the Avian Influenza Crisis&rdquo report. This report states, &ldquoThe European Union has already taken new initiatives under the One Health umbrella and will continue to do so in the coming years.&rdquo The report emphasizes the need to translate the One Health concept into practical policies and strategies that promote interagency and cross-sectoral collaboration.

The United Nations and the World Bank Recommend Adoption of One Health Approaches

In July 2010, the United Nations and the World Bank released the &ldquoFifth Global Progress Report on Animal and Pandemic Influenza.&rdquo The report reiterated the findings of the delegates at the Stone Mountain Meeting. It also emphasized the importance of adopting a One Health approach to sustain momentum in pandemic preparedness. Rather than focusing on controlling avian influenza through emergency initiatives, countries and regional bodies should build One Health capacity to respond to a broad range of emerging and existing disease threats, the report advised.

Experts Identify Clear and Concrete Actions to Move the Concept of One Health from Vision to Implementation

May 4-6, 2010, CDC, in collaboration with the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), and the World Health Organization (WHO), hosted a meeting in Stone Mountain, GA, titled, &ldquoOperationalizing &lsquoOne Health&rsquo: A Policy Perspective&mdashTaking Stock and Shaping an Implementation Roadmap pdf icon [PDF &ndash 24 pages] .&rdquo The meeting, which came to be known as the &ldquoStone Mountain Meeting,&rdquo was designed to define specific action steps to move the concept of One Health forward. Participants identified seven key activities to advance the One Health agenda. These activities formed the basis of which focused on:

  • Cataloguing and developing One Health trainings and curricula
  • Establishing a global network
  • Developing a country-level needs assessment
  • Building capacity at the country level
  • Developing a business case to promote donor support
  • Gathering evidence for proof of concept through literature reviews and prospective studies

The Tripartite Concept Note is Published

Recognizing that managing and responding to emerging infectious diseases is complex and requires multisectoral cooperation, OIE, FAO , and WHO joined together to publish the Tripartite Concept Note in April 2010. This paper proposes a long-term strategic direction for international collaboration aimed at sharing responsibilities and coordinating global activities to address health risks that arise when humans, animals, and the ecosystem interface.

The Hanoi Declaration, Which Recommends Broad Implementation of One Health, is Adopted Unanimously

April 19-21, 2010, a total of 71 countries and regional bodies, along with representatives from international organizations, development banks and other stakeholders, attended the 2010 International Ministerial Conference on Avian and Pandemic Influenza in Hanoi, Vietnam. With the experience of the H1N1 pandemic and highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza, participants confirmed the need to bring greater attention to the links between human and animal health to address threats that happen when animals, humans, and the ecosystem interface. At the conclusion of the meeting, participants unanimously adopted the declaration, which called for focused action at the animal-human-ecosystem interface and recommended broad implementation of One Health.


5. Disc brakes

The disc brake was invented decades before it became popular. In 1898, Elmer Ambrose Sperry designed an electric car with front-wheel disc brakes built by the Cleveland Machine Screw Co. Disc brakes work like bicycle brakes, wherein a caliper with brake pads pinches a disc or rotor. However, it was William Lanchester, an English engineer, who patented the idea in 1902. The biggest downside to his invention though was the horrible screeching noise it produced, which were caused by copper brake linings moving against a metal disc. After five years, another British named Herbert Frood solved the noise problem by lining the pads with long-lasting asbestos, which continued to be used in car brakes until the 1980s.

Still, disc brakes were not yet popular. It only began to be widely used in Europe during the 1950s when vehicles’ weight and speed capabilities were increasing, causing hydraulic brakes to become less efficient in distributing heat. The disc brakes were first integrated in the Chrysler Imperial since 1949 and 1953 and were first used with hydraulic functions.

In the US, Crosley Motors became the first American manufacturer to fit disc brakes. In 1949, it was fitted to Crosley’s Hotshot model but discontinued in 1950. These brakes, built by Auto Specialists Manufacturing Company (Ausco), used twin discs that spread apart and rub against the interior of a cast-iron drum. Less pedal pressure than caliper discs was required, and more friction surface than the drum brakes were provided.

In 1962, Bendix impressed the industry when it supplied four-wheel disc brakes as standard fit for the high-performance Studebaker Advant and as optional extras for Hawk and V8 Lark models. It took only a few years for other cars to adopt disc brakes since the increasing speed and size of cars could no longer match the capabilities of drum brakes.

During the 1960s, many auto manufacturers worldwide started to replace drum brakes with disc brakes. Some of the companies that were the first to do so in their countries were Italy’s Lancia in 1960, Germany’s Mercedes-Benz in 1961, France’s Renault in 1962, Japan’s Nissan in 1965 and Sweden’s Volvo in 1966.

For the best braking experience from the best advanced brakes for your car you can visit AutoLovins.


Grouse

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Grouse, any of a number of game birds in the family Tetraonidae (order Galliformes). In addition to species called grouse, the group includes several birds known by particular names, such as the capercaillie and prairie chicken (see below) and the ptarmigan. The order Columbiformes contains the sandgrouse. The most famous Old World member is the black grouse (Lyrurus tetrix), of Wales, Scotland, Scandinavia, and north-central Europe a related form (L. mlokosiewiczi) occurs in the Caucasus. The male, known as blackcock, may be 55 cm (22 inches) long and weigh almost 2 kg (about 4 pounds). He is iridescent blue-black, with white wing bars and undertail coverts his tail curls outward like a lyre. The female, known as gray hen, is mottled brown, barred with black she is smaller than the male. Several cocks display together in what is called a lek: they inflate red combs over their eyes, spread their tails, and circle in a crouch, quivering.

The best-known North American species is the ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus). In New England it is generally called a partridge, although it is not a true partridge. Ruffed grouse live mainly on berries, fruits, seeds, and buds but also take much animal food. Both the male and female are 40–50 cm (15.5–19.75 inches) long, with a black band on the fan-shaped tail. The male’s ruff consists of erectile black feathers on the sides of the neck. He is famous for drumming—beating his wings rapidly against the air—to proclaim his territory. In courtship display he struts, hissing, with tail cocked up before the hen.

The spruce grouse (Falcipennis canadensis), found in northerly conifer country, is nearly as big as a ruffed grouse, the male darker. Its flesh usually has the resinous taste of conifer buds and needles, its chief food. Also of evergreen forests is the blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus), a big, dark bird, plainer and longer-tailed than the spruce grouse and heavier than the ruffed grouse.

Two species that display spectacularly are the sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and the sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus). The former is the largest New World grouse, exceeded in the family only by the capercaillie. A male may be 75 cm (30 inches) long and weigh 3.5 kg (about 7.5 pounds). This species inhabits sagebrush flats. The sharptail, a 45-cm (18-inch) bird weighing 1 kg (about 2 pounds), is wild from Quebec and Michigan westward across Canada and southwestward to New Mexico.

The capercaillie, or capercailzie (Tetrao urogallus), exclusively a European game bird, is the largest member of the grouse family. The male capercaillie, sometimes called cock of the woods, is about 85 cm (33.5 inches) long, with black and brown plumage glossed with blue and green. The hen, about one-third smaller, is mottled brown with a rusty breast patch. Hybrids of capercaillie and black grouse are fertile, suggesting a very close relationship.

The prairie chickens, or pinnated grouse (Tympanuchus), are North American game birds also noted for lek displays. The greater prairie chicken (T. cupido) is a 45-cm (17.5-inch) bird with brown plumage strongly barred below and a short rounded dark tail a male may weigh almost 1 kg. It occurs locally from Michigan to Saskatchewan, south to Missouri, New Mexico, and coastal Texas and Louisiana northernmost birds are somewhat migratory. One subspecies, Attwater’s prairie chicken (T. cupido attwateri), became rare as its tall-grass habitat came under cultivation. The lesser prairie chicken (T. pallidicinctus), smaller and paler, is limited to the arid west-central Great Plains. The heath hen (T. cupido cupido), extinct since 1932, was the eastern race of the greater prairie chicken. The sharp-tailed grouse is locally called prairie chicken.

This article was most recently revised and updated by Richard Pallardy, Research Editor.


These four animals could be brought back from extinction

De-extinction, which is the process of creating an organism that is a member of or closely resembles an extinct species, is a scientific process made possible through the use of gene-editing technology like cloning or selective breeding. While some scientists question the evolutionary benefits and point out that de-extinction resources could be better spent conserving existing species, the idea is popular in biotech and conservation communities.

Here are four animals being considered as potential candidates for de-extinction:

Thylacine – This marsupial, native to Australia and New Guinea, was a relative of kangaroos and koalas but looked more like a wolf. Humans hunted the thylacine to extinction by the 1930s the last living animal died in captivity in 1936. In 2008, Dr. Andrew Pask, a researcher at the University of Melbourne, published a paper detailing how his team extracted DNA from a preserved thylacine and injected a portion of the Col2a1 gene, which regulates bone development, into mouse embryos, which grew normally. This was the first time DNA from an extinct animal performed its intended function in a living animal. This experiment has renewed scientists’ hopes of eventually restoring the thylacine from extinction.

Gastric-Brooding Frog – This frog went extinct in the mid 1980s, likely due to pollution and disease. Native to Australia, the frogs are known for their unique reproduction method: The mother would convert her stomach into a womb, swallow her eggs, refrain from eating during the six-week gestation period, and give birth through “propulsive vomiting.” In 2013, scientists at the University of New South Wales and University of Newcastle tried to clone the frog by implanting a cell nucleus from a dead gastric-brooding frog into a live egg from another frog species. Professor Mike Archer hopes to continue using this method to make an embryo that will survive to the tadpole stage.

Quagga – It’s thought that the quagga became extinct due to overhunting in 1883, but in 1984, genealogy technology revealed that the quagga was actually a subspecies of the plains zebra, meaning it has the same DNA. The two species share the same genotype, though their phenotype (their observable characteristics) is different. The Quagga Project was started to try to recreate the quagga through artificial selection of plains zebras. The project has had some success: The first quagga-like zebra foal was born in January 2005, and the fifth generation foal was born in December 2013. Scientists hope continued selective breeding will lead to generations of plains zebras almost identical to the extinct quagga, which could then be released in the wild.

Heath Hen – These birds were extremely common in the northeastern US and were likely eaten at the Pilgrims’ first Thanksgiving dinner in 1621. They were aggressively hunted for food over the next 300 years, and despite local conservation efforts, the last heath hens died in 1932. The wide availability of usable DNA from museum specimens makes the heath hen a de-extinction candidate. A conservancy group founded by Stewart Brand and Ryan Phelan, is interested in restoring the bird through genetic technology. “The heath hen could well be the gateway bird to being able to bring genetic rescue to a wide variety of endangered and possibly extinct birds,” Brand said in 2016.


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