Thomas Jefferson I AP-60 - History

Thomas Jefferson I AP-60 - History


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Thomas Jefferson I

(AP-60: dp. 11,760, 1. 492'; b. 69'6", dr. 26'9"; s. 18.4 k. (tl.), cpl. 693; trp. 1,265, a. 4 3", 4 40mm.; cl. President Jackson)

The first Thomas Jefferson (AP-60) was laid down under Maritime Commission contract (MC hull 66) as President Garfield on 6 February 1940 at Newport News, Va., by the Newport News Shipbuilding Drydock Co. for the American President Lines; launched on 20 November 1940, sponsored by Miss Eugenia Merrill, acquired by the United States Navy on 1 May 1942 from the War Shipping Administration, converted into a troop transport by her builders, and commissioned on 31 August 1942, Comdr. Chauncey R. Crutcher in command.

Following a brief shakedown, the new transport participated in amphibious exercises in the Hampton Roads Virginia capes area. On 23 October, the transport embarked elements of the 3d Infantry Division and got underway the next day with Task Group (TG) 34.9, the Center Attack Group, for the invasion of North Africa. All units of Task Force (TF) 34, the Western Naval Attack Force, rendezvoused south of Cape Race, Newfoundland, on the 28th and arrived off Morocco on 7 November. Thomas Jefferson was one of four transports loaded with the troops that comprised the assault wave against Fedhala. She was in Fedhala Roads at 2353 that night and had her boats in the water before 0200 the next morning. The transport lost 16 of her 33 boats that began the assault, because they landed on a rocky beach approximately three miles from their designated area.

On 11 November, Jeffereon's boats rescued survivors of the torpedoed Joseph Hewes (AP-50). The next day they picked up survivors of Hugh L. Scott (AP-43) Edward Rutledge (AP-52), and Tasker H. Bliss (AP42) which had been torpedoed by the German submarine U-lso. On the 15th, Thomas Jefferson joined a homeward-bound convoy and returned to Norfolk on the 26th.

On 27 December 1942, Thomas Jefferson steamed in a convoy bound for the South Pacific. She disembarked troops at New Caledonia and Australia in late January 1943; and, during the passage back to Panama, she was reclassified an attack transport and redesignated APA30 on 1 February 1943. She departed the Canal Zone on 3 March with a convoy bound, via Norfolk, for New York.

The attack transport returned to Norfolk in mid April and participated in landing exercises to prepare for the invasion of Sicily. She reached Oran on 22 June with her troops combat loaded. After two more weeks of practice landings, she sortied with TG 86.2 Attack Group Two for the "Baisey's Beach" area of Sicily. The sea was rough on the morning of 10 July as the troops clambered down Jefferson's debarkation nets into landing craft. However, when they did land, there was very little opposition. During the operation, the transport's gunners shot down two enemy planes.

Thomas Jefferson returned to Algeria and was assigned to TG 81.2, the Transport Group of the Southern Attack Force, for the assault on Salerno. She departed Oran on 5 September and arrived off Salerno the night of the 8th. The transport landed her troops on schedule on the beaches in front of Torre di Paestum despite fierce air opposition and steamed to Oran to shuttle reinforcements and supplies to Italy. Then, late in November, she loaded elements of the 82d Airborne Division and headed for the British Isles. After disembarking the paratroopers at Belfast, the transport continued onward to the United States

Thomas Jefferson arrived at Norfolk on 1 January 1944 and moved up the coast to New York in early February. On the 11th, she stood out to sea with the largest single troop convoy of the war on a return voyage to Belfast. The transport next held weeks of amphibious training before steaming to Weymouth England, to join the Normandy invasion fleet. On 5 June, Thomas Jefferson got underway for France with the mighty Allied armada that was to begin the invasion of "Fortress Europe" and, early the next morning was at her assigned position off the beaches. Her boats landed their troops at 0630. The ship completed unloading that afternoon and, at sunset, recrossed the channel to Weymouth.

Thomas Jefferson remained in the British Isles for a month before returning to North Africa early in July. From Oran, she was routed to Salerno to practice amphibious operations with the 36th Infantry Division in preparation for the invasion of southern France. She joined TF 87, the "Camel Force," to land assault troops on the east flank of Provence. Departing Palermo, she arrived off the assault area on 14 August. The next morning, her boats landed troops on Red Beach. The transport completed unloading on the 16th and returned to Naples to begin shuttling reinforcements and supplies from Italy, North Africa, and Marseilles to the southern beachhead. On 24 October, she got underway for the United States and arrived at Norfolk on 8 November.

The ship departed Norfolk on 15 December 1944 for the Pacific war zone. She called at San Francisco and arrived at Pearl Harbor on 28 January 1945. Routed on to the South Pacific, the transport trained with marines in the Solomons and then combat loaded them for the assault against the Ryukyus. She was at Ulithi on 17 March and sortied with TG 53.2, Transport Group "Baker," of the Northern Attack Force.

Thomas Jefferson was oR the Hagushi Beaches of Okinawa on 1 April when Admiral Richmond K. Turner gave the command to "Land the Landing Force." Her boats left the line of departure at 0800 and landed 30 minutes later. After five days off the bitterly contested island, the transport headed for Saipan and Pearl Harbor. On 8 May, she departed Hawaii carrying troops and cargo for Okinawa. The ship unloaded there and steamed homeward. After calls at Ulithi, Guadalcanal, Espiritu Santo, the Russell Islands, New Caledonia and Hawaii, she arrived at San Francisco on 15 July. She moved down the coast to San Diego and sailed from there on the 23d to return to the Far East. She called at Pearl Harbor and then headed, via Saipan, to Japan.

Arriving at Sasebo on 22 September, Thomas Jefferson got underway for Manila three days later. She returned to Sasebo with occupation troops and supplies on 20 October. The transport was then assigned to "Alagre-Carp~" duly, rearanging servicemen from awrseas to the United States. On 4 January 1946, Thomas Jefferson was assigned to the Naval Transportation Service to transport servicemen's dependents to Pacific

bases. She shuttled passengers and cargo between San Francisco and Pearl Harbor for the next 10 months. On 17 October, the ship departed San Diego for the east coast and arrived at New York on 4 November. She entered the navy yard for alterations and repairs which were not completed until March 1947.

Thomas Jefferson began the return voyage to the west coast on 14 March 1947 and arrived at Oakland on the 30th. Until August 1949, the transport plied between San Francisco and ports in Hawaii Guam Midway, Okinawa, Japan, China, and the Philippines. She made another round trip to New York in September and October and returned to San Diego on 10 November. Assigned to the Military Sea Transportation Service for duty on 31 October 1949, she continued her Pacific runs until 1950.

Thomas Jefferson was at San Diego on 25 June 1950 when the North Koreans invaded South Korea. She made a round trip to Yokohama and, on 28 August headed back to the Far East. The transport called at Yokosuka and Kobe before arriving at Inchon, Korea on 20 September for eight days. In October, she was again in Korean waters, shuttling troops and cargo from Pusan to Iwon, north of the 40th parallel. The ship returned to Sasebo on 10 November and then got underway for San Francisco.

The attack transport remained at San Francisco from 1 December 1950 to 24 January 1951 when she headed directly to Pusan with troops and cargo. She off-loaded between 8 and 10 February, returned to the United States; and was back at Pusan on 2 April. The next day, the ship got underway for San Francisco, but stayed only to embark troops and supplies before beginning the return voyage, via Amchitka, to Japan. The transport made voyages to Korea again in May and August. She returned to San Francisco on 10 September 1951 and did not sail west of the Hawaiian Islands until 1954.

APAJO cruised to the Far East in August and December 1954 before returning to San Francisco for inactivation. She was placed in commission, in reserve, on 7 March 1955 and out of commission, in reserve, on 18 July of that year. The transport was struck from the Navy list on 1 October 1958 and transferred to the Maritime Administration for disposal. She was sold to Zidell Explorations, Inc., Portland, Oreg., on 1 March 1973 and scrapped.

Thomas Jefferson received six battle stars for World War II service and four for the Korean conflict.


Thomas Jefferson I AP-60 - History

Thomas Jefferson was the 3rd President of the United States.

Served as President: 1801-1809
Vice President: Aaron Burr, George Clinton
Party: Democratic-Republican
Age at inauguration: 57

Born: April 13, 1743 in Albemarle County, Virginia
Died: July 4, 1826 in Monticello in Virginia

Married: Martha Wayles Skelton Jefferson
Children: Martha and Mary
Nickname: Father of the Declaration of Independence

What is Thomas Jefferson most known for?

Thomas Jefferson is known as a Founding Father of the United States. He is most famous for writing the Declaration of Independence.

Thomas grew up in the English Colony of Virginia. His parents, Peter and Jane, were wealthy landowners. Thomas enjoyed reading, exploring nature, and playing the violin. When he was just 11 years old his father died. He inherited his father's large estate and began to manage it at the age of 21.

Thomas attended the college of William and Mary in Virginia. There he met his mentor, a law professor by the name of George Wythe. He became interested in law and would later decide to become a lawyer.


The Signing of the Declaration of Independence
by John Trumbull

Before He Became President

Before he became president, Thomas Jefferson had a number of jobs: he was a lawyer who studied and practiced law, he was a farmer and managed his vast estate, and he was a politician who served as a member of Virginia's legislature.

By the 1770s, the American colonies, including Jefferson's Virginia, began to feel they were being unjustly treated by their British rulers. Thomas Jefferson became a leader in the fight for independence and represented Virginia at the Continental Congress.


Thomas Jefferson designed
this desk where he wrote
the Declaration of Independence

Source: Smithsonian Institute

Writing the Declaration of Independence

During the Second Continental Congress, Jefferson was tasked, together with John Adams and Benjamin Franklin, to write a Declaration of Independence. This document was to state that the colonies considered themselves free from British rule and were willing to fight for that freedom. Jefferson was the primary author of the document and wrote the first draft. After incorporating a few changes from the other members of the committee, they presented it to the congress. This document is one of the most treasured documents in the history of the United States.

During and After the Revolutionary War

Jefferson held a number of political positions during and after the war including U.S. Minister to France, Governor of Virginia, the first Secretary of State under George Washington, and Vice President under John Adams.

Thomas Jefferson's Presidency

Jefferson became the third President of the United States on March 4, 1801. One of the first things he did was try to reduce the federal budget, moving power back into the hands of the states. He also lowered taxes, which made him popular to many people.


A statue of Thomas Jefferson is located
at the center of the Jefferson Memorial.
Photo by Ducksters
    - He bought a large section of land to the west of the original 13 colonies from Napoleon of France. Although much of this land was unsettled, it was so large it nearly doubled the size of the United States. He also made a really good deal buying all this land for only 15 million dollars.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition - Once he had bought the Louisiana Purchase, Jefferson needed to map the area and find out what was west of the country's land. He appointed Lewis and Clark to explore the western territory and report back on what was there.
  • Battling Pirates - He sent American Navy ships to battle pirate ships on the coast of North Africa. These pirates had been attacking American merchant vessels, and Jefferson was determined to put a stop to it. This caused a minor war called the First Barbary War.

Jefferson became sick in 1825. His health grew worse, and he finally passed away on July 4, 1826. It is an amazing fact that he died on the same day as his fellow founding father John Adams. Even more amazing is that they both died on the 50th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence.


Thomas Jefferson
by Rembrandt Peale

5 Surprising Facts About Thomas Jefferson

Thomas Jefferson was a man of many faces. Other than his obvious influence on American politics, he was intrigued by diverse cultures in the New World and embraced them in every way he was able. Jefferson accomplished a lot in his lifetime—his presidential tenure didn’t even make it into the three achievements inscribed on his gravestone. Here are a few facts you never knew about one of the most interesting men in American history.

1. He was a (proto) archaeologist.


Jefferson collected fossils and was obsessed with animals, especially the mammoth. He even had the bones of a mastodon (now displayed in the Monticello Entrance Hall) sent to him during his residence in the President's House in Washington, DC. (Read about Jefferson's excavation of an Indian burial mound near Monticello.)

2. He was an architect.


Aside from his Monticello home, which took him nearly 40 years to complete, Jefferson was obsessed with building things—and not only as a hobby. He designed the iconic rotunda at the University of Virginia, as well as the Virginia State Capitol in Richmond.

3. He was a wine aficionado.


After residing in France, Jefferson brought his love of French wine to America. He is recognized as one of the great wine experts of early America and even kept two vineyards at Monticello.

4. He was a founding foodie.

In addition to wine, French food inspired Jefferson’s palate, from the cooking within his home to his presidential dinner parties. Some of America’s most beloved foods, like ice cream, mac 'n' cheese and french fries were popularized after his interests permeated to the rest of the country.

5. He was obsessed with books.


It's highly likely that Jefferson had the largest personal collection of books in the United States at the time. After the Library of Congress was raided by the British in 1814, Jefferson offered his personal library, which contained almost 6,500 volumes, as a replacement.


Thomas Jefferson I AP-60 - History

For the biography of Thomas Jefferson, see Jefferson .

(AP - 60: dp. 11,760 l. 492' b. 69'6" dr. 26'9" s. 18.4 k. (tl.) cpl. 593 trp. 1,265 a. 4 3", 4 40mm. cl. President Jackson )

The first Thomas Jefferson (AP-60) was laid down under Maritime Commission contract (MC hull 56) as President Garfield on 5 February 1940 at Newport News, Va., by the Newport News Shipbuilding Drydock Co. for the American President Lines launched on 20 November 1940 sponsored by Miss Eugenia Merrill acquired by the United States Navy on 1 May 1942 from the War Shipping Administration converted into a troop transport by her builders and commissioned on 31 August 1942, Comdr. Chauncey R. Crutcher in command.

Following a brief shakedown, the new transport participated in amphibious exercises in the Hampton Roads-Virginia capes area. On 23 October, the transport embarked elements of the 3d Infantry Division and got underway the next day with Task Group (TG) 34.9, the Center Attack Group, for the invasion of North Africa. All units of Task Force (TF) 34, the Western Naval Attack Force, rendezvoused south of Cape Race, Newfoundland, on the 28th and arrived off Morocco on 7 November. Thomas Jefferson was one of four transports loaded with the troops that comprised the assault wave against Fedhala. She was in Fedhala Roads at 2353 that night and had her boats in the water before 0200 the next morning. The transport lost 16 of her 33 boats that began the assault, because they landed on a rocky beach approximately three miles from their designated area.

On 11 November, Jefferson's boats rescued survivors of the torpedoed Joseph Hewes (AP-50). The next day they picked up survivors of Hugh L. Scott (AP-43), Edward Rutledge (AP-52), and Tasker H. Bliss (AP-42) which had been torpedoed by the German submarine U-130 . On the 15th, Thomas Jefferson joined a homeward-bound convoy and returned to Norfolk on the 26th.

On 27 December 1942, Thomas Jefferson steamed in a convoy bound for the South Pacific. She disembarked troops at New Caledonia and Australia in late January 1943 and, during the passage back to Panama, she was reclassified an attack transport and redesignated APA-30 on 1 February 1943. She departed the Canal Zone on 3 March with a convoy bound, via Norfolk, for New York.

The attack transport returned to Norfolk in mid-April and participated in landing exercises to prepare for the invasion of Sicily. She reached Oran on 22 June with her troops combat loaded. After two more weeks of practice landings, she sortied with TG 85.2, Attack Group Two, for the "Bailey's Beach" area of Sicily. The sea was rough on the morning of 10 July as the troops clambered down Jefferson's debarkation nets into landing craft. However, when they did land, there was very little opposition. During the operation, the transport's gunners shot down two enemy planes.

Thomas Jefferson returned to Algeria and was assigned to TG 81.2, the Transport Group of the Southern Attack Force, for the assault on Salerno. She departed Oran on 5 September and arrived off Salerno the night of the 8th. The transport landed her troops on schedule on the beaches in front of Torre di Paestum despite fierce air opposition and steamed to Oran to shuttle reinforcements and supplies to Italy. Then, late in November, she loaded elements of the 82d Airborne Division and headed for the British Isles. After disembarking the paratroopers at Belfast, the transport continued onward to the United States

Thomas Jefferson arrived at Norfolk on 1 January 1944 and moved up the coast to New York in early February. On the 11th, she stood out to sea with the largest single troop convoy of the war on a return voyage to Belfast. The transport next held weeks of amphibious training before steaming to Weymouth, England, to join the Normandy invasion fleet. On 5 June, Thomas Jefferson got underway for France with the mighty Allied armada that was to begin the invasion of "Fortress Europe" and, early the next morning was at her assigned position off the beaches. Her boats landed their troops at 0630. The ship completed unloading that afternoon and, at sunset, recrossed the channel to Weymouth.

Thomas Jefferson remained in the British Isles for a month before returning to North Africa early in July. From Oran, she was routed to Salerno to practice amphibious operations with the 36th Infantry Division in preparation for the invasion of southern France. She joined TF 87, the "Camel Force," to land assault troops on the east flank of Provence. Departing Palermo, she arrived off the assault area on 14 August. The next morning, her boats landed troops on Red Beach. The transport completed unloading on the 16th and returned to Naples to begin shuttling reinforcements and supplies from Italy, North Africa, and Marseilles to the southern beachhead. On 24 October, she got underway for the United States and arrived at Norfolk on 8 November.

The ship departed Norfolk on 15 December 1944 for the Pacific war zone. She called at San Francisco and arrived at Pearl Harbor on 28 January 1945. Routed on to the South Pacific, the transport trained with marines in the Solomons and then combat loaded them for the assault against the Ryukyus. She was at Ulithi on 17 March and sortied with TG 53.2, Transport Group "Baker," of the Northern Attack Force.

Thomas Jefferson was off the Hagushi Beaches of Okinawa on 1 April when Admiral Richmond K. Turner gave the command to "Land the Landing Force." Her boats left the line of departure at 0800 and landed 30 minutes later. After five days off the bitterly contested island, the transport headed for Saipan and Pearl Harbor. On 8 May, she departed Hawaii carrying troops and cargo for Okinawa. The ship unloaded there and steamed homeward. After calls at Ulithi, Guadalcanal, Espiritu Santo, the Russell Islands, New Caledonia and Hawaii, she arrived at San Francisco on 15 July. She moved down the coast to San Diego and sailed from there on the 23d to return to the Far East. She called at Pearl Harbor and then headed, via Saipan, to Japan.

Arriving at Sasebo on 22 September, Thomas Jefferson got underway for Manila three days later. She returned to Sasebo with occupation troops and supplies on 20 October. The transport was then assigned to "Magic-Carpet" duty, returning servicemen from overseas to the United States. On 4 January 1946, Thomas Jefferson was assigned to the Naval Transportation Service to transport servicemen's dependents to Pacific bases. She shuttled passengers and cargo between San Francisco and Pearl Harbor for the next 10 months. On 17 October, the ship departed San Diego for the east coast and arrived at New York on 4 November. She entered the navy yard for alterations and repairs which were not completed until March 1947.

Thomas Jefferson began the return voyage to the west coast on 14 March 1947 and arrived at Oakland on the 30th. Until August 1949, the transport plied between San Francisco and ports in Hawaii, Guam, Midway, Okinawa, Japan, China, and the Philippines. She made another round trip to New York in September and October and returned to San Diego on 10 November. Assigned to the Military Sea Transportation Service for duty on 31 October 1949, she continued her Pacific runs until 1950.

Thomas Jefferson was at San Diego on 25 June 1950 when the North Koreans invaded South Korea. She made a round trip to Yokohama and, on 28 August headed back to the Far East. The transport called at Yokosuka and Kobe before arriving at Inchon, Korea on 20 September for eight days. In October, she was again in Korean waters, shuttling troops and cargo from Pusan to Iwon, north of the 40th parallel. The ship returned to Sasebo on 10 November and then got underway for San Francisco.

The attack transport remained at San Francisco from 1 December 1950 to 24 January 1951 when she headed directly to Pusan with troops and cargo. She off-loaded between 8 and 10 February returned to the United States and was back at Pusan on 2 April. The next day, the ship got underway for San Francisco, but stayed only to embark troops and supplies before beginning the return voyage, via Amchitka, to Japan. The transport made voyages to Korea again in May and August. She returned to San Francisco on 10 September 1951 and did not sail west of the Hawaiian Islands until 1954.

APA-30 cruised to the Far East in August and December 1954 before returning to San Francisco for inactivation. She was placed in commission, in reserve, on 7 March 1955 and out of commission, in reserve, on 18 July of that year. The transport was struck from the Navy list on 1 October 1958 and transferred to the Maritime Administration for disposal. She was sold to Zidell Explorations, Inc., Portland, Oreg., on 1 March 1973 and scrapped.

Thomas Jefferson received six battle stars for World War II service and four for the Korean conflict.


Sally Hemings and Thomas Jefferson

Even before he wrote the story linking Jefferson to Hemings, Callender had earned a notorious reputation. He had written a stinging pamphlet in1796 that accused Alexander Hamilton of corruption and adultery. Hamilton admitted to the latter but denied the former. He was ultimately exonerated of having done anything illegal. Jefferson, ironically, had encouraged Callender when his targets were Federalists, like Hamilton, and even financed some of his projects.

Callender was arrested under the Sedition Act in 1800, was fined $250, and spent almost a year in jail. After Jefferson assumed the presidency in1801, he pardoned Callender. Shortly thereafter, Callender, in need of money, pressed Jefferson for the job of postmaster in Richmond, Virginia. True to form, Callender’s request included an insinuation of blackmail if Jefferson refused. Jefferson had come to see Callender for the scamp that he really was and refused to appoint someone with such a seedy past to any federal position.

Callender took a job with the anti-Jefferson newspaper the Recorder. He revealed that Jefferson had bankrolled some of his earlier scandalous writings—a charge that Jefferson was forced to admit. Callender then hit him with the Hemings story. Callender had never visited Monticello and based his information on the fact that several of Jefferson’s slaves were light-skinned. Callender later implicated Jefferson in the seduction of a married woman. Jefferson eventually confessed to that charge but deflected the Hemings accusation by pretending it did not exist (at least in public privately he denied it). In 1802, one of Callender’s public tar-gets clubbed him over the head. A year later, Callender was found drowned . . . in two feet of water. By the time Jefferson died in 1826, few remembered the accusations, save for the occasional snide attack in the Northern abolitionist press. That changed in 1873.

Madison Hemings, the youngest son of Sally Hemings, granted abolitionist newspaperman Samuel Wetmore an interview in 1873. Madison had intimated to close family and friends that he was Jefferson’s son and disclosed this alleged relationship to Wetmore, who published it in his newspaper in Ohio. The story quickly spread across the country. Critics argued that Wetmore’s article was a mere rewrite of Callender’s original (the same word was even misspelled), and Jefferson’s grandchildren denied its accusations. For most people that again put an end to it.

Fast forward one hundred years. Fawn Brodie’s 1974 book Thomas Jefferson: An Intimate History revived interest in the “affair.” Brodie sided with Madison Hemings and argued that Jefferson fathered all of Sally Hemings’ children. Historians, including Jefferson’s most important biographer, Dumas Malone, doubted the Hemings story, but the general public seemed eager to accept it. Twenty years later, lawyer Annette Gordon-Reed published Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings: An American Controversy in an attempt to vindicate Madison Hemings. The book and modern advancements in DNA technology led to several members of the Jefferson and Hemings line having their DNA analyzed. The results showed that a “male” in Thomas Jefferson’s family was indeed a direct ancestor of the Hemings children, principally Madison Hemings, but did not conclusively prove that Thomas Jefferson was the link. A 2000 study conducted by the Thomas Jefferson Foundation, however, determined that Jefferson was, unequivocally, the father of Madison Hemings and possibly Sally Hemings’ other children. Omitted from the report was the one dissenting voice on the committee, the medical doctor charged with verifying the DNA tests. Though noting that Jefferson could have been the father of Hemings’ children, he preferred to leave the question open due to the circumstantial nature of the evidence and argued that the majority of the committee had arrived at their conclusion before examining all available information. In essence, most of the committee believed the burden was to prove Jefferson innocent, not guilty.

In 2001, the Thomas Jefferson Heritage Society, a group that possessed more academic clout than the Foundation, released a report that directly contradicted the Foundation’s conclusions. In the summary to their findings, the scholars stated, “With the exception of one member. . . our individual conclusions range from serious skepticism about the charge to a conviction that it is almost certainly false.”2 The scholars’ report identified various inconsistencies in both the oral and written records that the Foundation used to indict Jefferson, and argued that Madison Hemings was upset because he felt Jefferson and his family had not treated the Hemings family well.

The scholars also noted that Jefferson’s overseer, Edmund Bacon, had not only flatly denied that Jefferson had fathered any of Sally Hemings’ children, but reported that he had seen a white man—not Thomas Jefferson—leave Hemings’ bedchamber many mornings before work. The scholars pointed to Jefferson’s brother, often called “Uncle Randolph,” as the probable father of Heming’s children. Randolph Jefferson was reported to have a social relationship with the Monticello slaves and had possibly fathered other children through his own servants.

Because of the circumstantial nature of the evidence in the case, it can not be proven conclusively that Jefferson fathered any of Sally Hemings’ children. It is possible but not probable. If Jefferson were to stand trial for paternity with the current evidence in hand, an honest jury would find him “not guilty.” So should historians and so should the public.


4. Jefferson&rsquos grandson&rsquos diary was the first clue

Historians wanted to determine the original layout of the Monticello Plantation, and in doing so, they ran across a document written by one of Thomas Jefferson&rsquos grandsons. In his documents, Jefferson&rsquos grandson describes a room that didn&rsquot fit in with the known layout of the Monticello Plantation.

(Photo by Robert Alexander/Archive Photos/Getty Images)

He described a room in the south wing of the former plantation house. At first, archaeologists were skeptical about the information. But then they remembered the restroom addition, and that got the cogs in their heads turning. Though Jefferson&rsquos grandson was known to be unreliable, it seemed odd that Jefferson Jr. Jr. would write about something like this if is wasn&rsquot true.


To Peter Carr

I received by Mr. Mazzei your letter of April 20. I am much mortified to hear that you have lost so much time, and that when you arrived in Williamsburgh you were not at all advanced from what you were when you left Monticello. Time now begins to be precious to you. Every day you lose, will retard a day your entrance on that public stage whereon you may begin to be useful to yourself. However the way to repair the loss is to improve the future time. I trust that with your dispositions even the acquisition of science is a pleasing employment. I can assure you that the possession of it is what (next to an honest heart) will above all things render you dear to your friends, and give you fame and promotion in your own country. When your mind shall be well improved with science, nothing will be necessary to place you in the highest points of view but to pursue the interests of your country, the interests of your friends, and your own interests also with the purest integrity, the most chaste honour. The defect of these virtues can never be made up by all the other acquirements of body and mind. Make these then your first object. Give up money, give up fame, give up science, give the earth itself and all it contains rather than do an immoral act. And never suppose that in any possible situation or under any circumstances that it is best for you to do a dishonourable thing however slightly so it may appear to you. Whenever you are to do a thing tho’ it can never be known but to yourself, ask yourself how you would act were all the world looking at you, and act accordingly. Encourage all your virtuous dispositions, and exercise them whenever an opportunity arises, being assured that they will gain strength by exercise as a limb of the body does, and that exercise will make them habitual. From the practice of the purest virtue you may be assured you will derive the most sublime comforts in every moment of life and in the moment of death. If ever you find yourself environed with difficulties and perplexing circumstances, out of which you are at a loss how to extricate yourself, do what is right, and be assured that that will extricate you the best out of the worst situations. Tho’ you cannot see when you fetch one step, what will be the next, yet follow truth, justice, and plain-dealing, and never fear their leading you out of the labyrinth in the easiest manner possible. The knot which you thought a Gordian one will untie itself before you. Nothing is so mistaken as the supposition that a person is to extricate himself from a difficulty, by intrigue, by chicanery, by dissimulation, by trimming, by an untruth, by an injustice. This increases the difficulties tenfold, and those who pursue these methods, get themselves so involved at length that they can turn no way but their infamy becomes more exposed. It is of great importance to set a resolution, not to be shaken, never to tell an untruth. There is no vice so mean, so pitiful, so contemptible and he who permits himself to tell a lie once, finds it much easier to do it a second and third time, till at length it becomes habitual, he tells lies without attending to it, and truths without the world’s beleiving him. This falshood of the tongue leads to that of the heart, and in time depraves all it’s good dispositions.

An honest heart being the first blessing, a knowing head is the second. It is time for you now to begin to be choice in your reading, to begin to pursue a regular course in it and not to suffer yourself to be turned to the right or left by reading any thing out of that course. I have long ago digested a plan for you, suited to the circumstances in which you will be placed. This I will detail to you from time to time as you advance. For the present I advise you to begin a course of antient history, reading every thing in the original and not in translations. First read Goldsmith’s history of Greece. This will give you a digested view of that feild. Then take up antient history in the detail, reading the following books in the following order. Herodotus. Thucydides. Xenophontis hellenica. Xenophontis Anabasis. Quintus Curtius. Justin. This shall form the first stage of your historical reading, and is all I need mention to you now. The next will be of Roman history. From that we will come down to Modern history. In Greek and Latin poetry, you have read or will read at school Virgil, Terence, Horace, Anacreon, Theocritus, Homer. Read also Milton’s paradise lost, Ossian, Pope’s works, Swift’s works in order to form your style in your own language. In morality read Epictetus, Xenophontis memorabilia, Plato’s Socratic dialogues, Cicero’s philosophies. In order to assure a certain progress in this reading, consider what hours you have free from the school and the exercises of the school. Give about two of them every day to exercise for health must not be sacrificed to learning. A strong body makes the mind strong. As to the species of exercise, I advise the gun. While this gives a moderate exercise to the body, it gives boldness, enterprize, and independance to the mind. Games played with the ball and others of that nature, are too violent for the body and stamp no character on the mind. Let your gun therefore be the constant companion of your walks. Never think of taking a book with you. The object of walking is to relax the mind. You should therefore not permit yourself even to think while you walk. But divert your attention by the objects surrounding you. Walking is the best possible exercise. Habituate yourself to walk very far. The Europeans value themselves on having subdued the horse to the uses of man. But I doubt whether we have not lost more than we have gained by the use of this animal. No one has occasioned so much the degeneracy of the human body. An Indian goes on foot nearly as far in a day, for a long journey, as an enfeebled white does on his horse, and he will tire the best horses. There is no habit you will value so much as that of walking far without fatigue. I would advise you to take your exercise in the afternoon. Not because it is the best time for exercise for certainly it is not: but because it is the best time to spare from your studies and habit will soon reconcile it to health, and render it nearly as useful as if you gave to that the more precious hours of the day. A little walk of half an hour in the morning when you first rise is adviseable also. It shakes off sleep, and produces other good effects in the animal œconomy. Rise at a fixed and an early hour, and go to bed at a fixed and early hour also. Sitting up late at night is injurious to the health, and not useful to the mind.—Having ascribed proper hours to exercise, divide what remain (I mean of your vacant hours) into three portions. Give the principal to history, the other two, which should be shorter, to Philosophy and Poetry. Write me once every month or two and let me know the progress you make. Tell me in what manner you employ every hour in the day. The plan I have proposed for you is adapted to your present situation only. When that is changed, I shall propose a corresponding change of plan. I have ordered the following books to be sent to you from London to the care of Mr. Madison. Herodotus. Thucydides. Xenophon’s Hellenics, Anabasis, and Memorabilia. Cicero’s works. Baretti’s Spanish and English dictionary. Martin’s philosophical grammar and Martin’s philosophia Britannica. I will send you the following from hence. Bezout’s mathematics. De la Lande’s astronomy. Muschenbroek’s physics. Quintus Curtius. Justin, a Spanish grammar, and some Spanish books. You will observe that Martin, Bezout, De la Lande and Muschenbroek are not in the preceding plan. They are not to be opened till you go to the University. You are now I expect learning French. You must push this: because the books which will be put into your hands when you advance into Mathematics, Natural philosophy, Natural history, &c. will be mostly French, these sciences being better treated by the French than the English writers. Our future connection with Spain renders that the most necessary of the modern languages, after the French. When you become a public man you may have occasion for it, and the circumstance of your possessing that language may give you a preference over other candidates. I have nothing further to add for the present, than to husband well your time, cherish your instructors, strive to make every body your friend, & be assured that nothing will be so pleasing, as your success, to Dear Peter yours affectionately,


"LIFE, LIBERTY, AND THE PURSUIT OF HAPPINESS"

After college, Jefferson became a lawyer. By age 26 he was a member of Virginia’s colonial legislature, or government. Like George Washington, Jefferson spoke out against Great Britain’s rule over the 13 North American colonies. When the colonists decided to demand their independence from Great Britain, Jefferson was chosen to write a document explaining why the colonies should be free. The document became known as the Declaration of Independence. It’s still admired today for its call for freedom, equality, and its demand that all citizens deserve "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness."

Before he became president, Jefferson was governor of Virginia before the Revolutionary War. After the war, he served as U.S. minister to France, secretary of state for President George Washington, and vice president for President John Adams, the country’s second president.


7. He helped popularize ice cream in the U.S.

Jefferson spent time in France in the 1700s as a diplomat, and that’s where he was likely introduced to the dessert delicacy known as ice cream. While not the first to port over recipes to the United States, his frequent serving of it during his time as president contributed to increased awareness. Jefferson was so fond of ice cream that he had special molds and tools imported from France to help his staff prepare it because there was no refrigeration at the time, the confections were typically kept in ice houses and brought out to the amusement of guests, who were surprised by a frozen dish during summer parties. He also left behind what may be the first ice cream recipe in America: six egg yolks, a half-pound of sugar, two bottles of cream, and one vanilla bean.


Ties to the Koch Brothers

TJI has ties to the Koch brothers. The organization has received funding from DonorsTrust and Donors Capital Fund. TJI also received funding from the Charles G. Koch Charitable Foundation. (See below.)

Charles Koch is the right-wing billionaire owner of Koch Industries. As one of the richest people in the world, he is a key funder of the right-wing infrastructure, including the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC) and the State Policy Network (SPN). In SourceWatch, key articles on Charles Koch and his late brother David include: Koch Brothers, Americans for Prosperity, Stand Together Chamber of Commerce, Stand Together, Koch Family Foundations, Koch Universities, and I360.


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