Austin DE-15 - History

Austin DE-15 - History

Austin

II

(DE-15: dp. 1,140; 1. 289'5"; b. 35'1 3/8; dr. 9'11" (f.); s. 20 k.; cpl. 199: a. 3 3", 6 40mm., 5 20mm., 8 dcp., 1 dcp. (hh.), 2 dct.; cl. Evarts)

The second Austin (DE-15) was laid down on 14 March 1942 at the Mare Island Navy Yard as HMS Blackwood (BDE-15) for the United Kingdom under the terms of the lend-lease agreement; launched on 25 September 1942: sponsored by Mrs. W. C. Springer; taken over by the United States Navy on 25 January 1943 and redesignated DE-15; and commissioned on 13 February 1943, Lt. Com dr. H. G. Claudius, USNR, in command. The destroyer escort was apparently commissioned as simply DE-15 for the name Austin was not assigned to her until 19 February 1943, six days after she went into commission.

Assigned to Escort Division (CortDiv) 14, the ship conducted shakedown training out of San Diego between 23 March and 23 April. On the latter day, she put to sea to escort a convoy to Cold Bay, Alaska. She returned to San Diego on 11 May and began convoy escort missions between the west coast and the Hawaiian Islands. Between mid-May and early September, Austin made two round-trip voyages between San Diego and Oahu and then a single, one-way run from the west coast back to Pearl Harbor. On 2 September, she stood out of that base; shaped a course for the Aleutian Islands; and, on 14 September, joined the Alaskan Sea Frontier. For just over one year, Austin plied the cold waters of the north Pacific escorting ships between Alaskan ports, conducting patrols, performing weather ship duties, and serving as a homing point for aircraft.

The warship departed Alaska on 23 September; arrived in San Francisco, Calif., a week later, and received a regular overhaul which lasted until 17 November. On 3 December, she once more weighed anchor for Hawaii. Austin operated out of Pearl Harbor as a training vessel with the Pacific Fleet Submarine Training Command until 20 March, when she set out for the Central Pacific. On 1 April, the destroyer escort reported for duty with forces assigned to the Commander, Forward Areas, and, for a little more than two months, conducted antisubmarine patrols and air/sea rescue missions out of Ulithi Atoll in the Western Caroline Islands. She finished that assignment on 10 June when she shaped a course for the Mariana Islands. For the next four months, Austin operated out of Guam and Saipan. In addition to antisubmarine patrols and air/sea rescue missions, she escorted convoys to such places as Iwo Jima, Eniwetok, and Okinawa. Following the cessation of hostilities in mid-August, she conducted search missions in the northern Marianas for enemy holdouts and for survivors of downed B-29's. The warship also patrolled Truk Atoll briefly before occupation forces arrived there in strength.

On 12 October, she departed Guam in company with the other ships of CortDiv 14, bound for San Pedro, Calif,, and inactivation. On 17 November, she reported to the Commander, Western Sea Frontier, to pre are for decommissioning and, on 21 December 1945, was placed out of commission at Terminal Island Naval Shipyard. Austin was berthed with the Pacific Reserve Fleet until scrapped. On 8 January 1946, her name was struck from the Navy list. The Terminal Island Naval Shipyard completed scrapping her on 9 January 1947.


List of destroyer escorts of the United States Navy

This is a list of destroyer escorts of the United States Navy, listed in a table sortable by both name and hull-number. It includes the hull classification symbols DE (both Destroyer Escort and Ocean Escort), DEG, and DER.

The Lend-lease Act was passed into law in the US in March 1941 enabling the United Kingdom to procure merchant ships, warships and munitions etc. from the US, in order to help with the war effort. This enabled the UK to commission the US to design, build and supply an escort vessel that was suitable for anti submarine warfare in deep open ocean situations, which they did in June 1941. Captain E.L. Cochrane of the American Bureau of Shipping came up with a design which was known as the British Destroyer Escort (BDE). The BDE designation was retained by the first six Destroyer Escorts transferred to the United Kingdom (BDE 1, 2, 3, 4, 12 and 46) of the initial order of 50 these were the only ones the Royal Navy received, the rest being reclassified as Destroyer Escort (DE) on 25 January 1943 and taken over by the United States Navy. [1]

Ships that were classified DE or DEG were reclassified in 1975 as FF or FFG (frigates). This affected hull numbers DE-1037 and higher as well as all DEGs.


Mục lục

Những chiếc thuộc lớp tàu khu trục Evarts có chiều dài chung 289 ft 5 in (88,21 m), mạn tàu rộng 35 ft 1 in (10,69 m) và độ sâu mớn nước khi đầy tải là 8 ft 3 in (2,51 m). Chúng có trọng lượng choán nước tiêu chuẩn 1.140 tấn Anh (1.160 t) và lên đến 1.430 tấn Anh (1.450 t) khi đầy tải. Hệ thống động lực bao gồm bốn động cơ diesel General Motors Kiểu 16-278A nối với bốn máy phát điện để vận hành hai trục chân vịt công suất 6.000 hp (4.500 kW) cho phép đạt được tốc độ tối đa 21 kn (24 mph 39 km/h), và có dự trữ hành trình 4.150 nmi (4.780 dặm 7.690 km) khi di chuyển ở vận tốc đường trường 12 kn (14 mph 22 km/h). [2]

Vũ khí trang bị bao gồm ba pháo 3 in (76 mm)/50 cal trên tháp pháo nòng đơn có thể đối hạm hoặc phòng không, một khẩu đội 1,1 inch/75 caliber bốn nòng và chín pháo phòng không Oerlikon 20 mm. Vũ khí chống ngầm bao gồm một dàn súng cối chống tàu ngầm Hedgehog Mk. 10 (có 24 nòng và mang theo 144 quả đạn) hai đường ray Mk. 9 và tám máy phóng K3 Mk. 6 để thả mìn sâu. [2]

Nguyên được dự định chuyển giao cho Hải quân Hoàng gia Anh, Austin được đặt lườn như là chiếc HMS Blackwood (BDE-15) tại tại Xưởng hải quân Mare Island, ở Vallejo, California vào ngày 14 tháng 3 năm 1942. Nó được hạ thủy vào ngày 25 tháng 9 năm 1942 và được đỡ đầu bởi bà W. C. Springer. Tuy nhiên kế hoạch chuyển giao bị hủy bỏ, và con tàu quay trở lại sở hữu của Hoa Kỳ vào ngày 25 tháng 1 năm 1943, mang ký hiệu lườn DE-15. Nó nhập biên chế cùng Hải quân Hoa Kỳ vào ngày 13 tháng 2 năm 1943 dưới quyền chỉ huy của Hạm trưởng, Thiếu tá Hải quân H. G. Claudius, chỉ dưới tên gọi DE-15 thuần túy. Cái tên Austin chỉ được đặt cho con tàu sáu ngày sau đó, vào ngày 19 tháng 2 năm 1943. [1]

Được phân về Đội hộ tống 14, Austin tiến hành chạy thử máy và huấn luyện tại khu vực San Diego từ ngày 23 tháng 3 đến ngày 23 tháng 4, 1943. Sau khi hộ tống một đoàn tàu vận tải đi Cold Bay, Alaska và quay trở về San Diego vào ngày 11 tháng 5, nó bắt đầu làm nhiệm vụ hộ tống các đoàn tàu vận tải đi lại giữa vùng bờ Tây và quần đảo Hawaii. Từ giữa tháng 5 đến đầu tháng 9, nó thực hiện hai chuyến khứ hồi giữa San Diego và Oahu, rồi một chuyến đi một chiều từ vùng bờ Tây đến Trân Châu Cảng. Rời căn cứ này vào ngày 2 tháng 9, con tàu hướng đến khu vực quần đảo Aleut và gia nhập Lực lượng Tiền phương Biển Alaska vào ngày 14 tháng 9. Trong hơn một năm tiếp theo, nó hoạt động tại vùng biển Bắc Thái Bình Dương lạnh giá, làm nhiệm vụ hộ tống tàu bè đi lại giữa các cảng Alaska, tuần tra, khảo sát thời tiết cũng như cột mốc dẫn đường cho máy bay. [1]

Austin rời vùng biển Alaska vào ngày 23 tháng 9, 1944 để quay trở về vùng bờ Tây, đi đến San Francisco, California một tuần sau đó, nơi nó được đại tu thường lệ cho đến ngày 17 tháng 11. Nó lên đường vào ngày 3 tháng 12 để đi sang khu vực quần đảo Hawaii, và hoạt động từ Trân Châu Cảng trong vai trò tàu huấn luyện thuộc Bộ chỉ huy Huấn luyện Tàu ngầm Hạm đội Thái Bình Dương cho đến ngày 20 tháng 3, 1945. Nó lên đường đi sang khu vực Trung tâm Thái Bình Dương, và từ ngày 1 tháng 4 đã phục vụ tuần tra chống tàu ngầm và nhiệm vụ tìm kiếm và giải cứu tại khu vực Ulithi về phía Tây quần đảo Caroline. [1]

Sau hai tháng làm nhiệm vụ này, Austin lên đường vào ngày 10 tháng 6 để đi sang khu vực quần đảo Mariana. Trong bốn tháng tiếp theo, nó hoạt động từ các đảo Guam và Saipan trong vai trò tuần tra chống tàu ngầm và nhiệm vụ tìm kiếm và giải cứu. Nó cũng hộ tống các đoàn tàu vận tải đi Iwo Jima, Eniwetok và Okinawa. Sau khi chiến tranh kết thúc vào giữa tháng 8, nó làm nhiệm vụ tìm kiếm các vị trí đồn trú của quân Nhật tại phía Bắc quần đảo Mariana, cũng như tìm kiếm các đội bay bị mất tích khi những máy bay ném bom B-29 Superfortress bị bắn rơi trong chiến tranh. Con tàu cũng tuần tra tại đảo san hô Truk một thời gian ngắn trước khi lực lượng chiếm đóng đến tiếp nhận sự đầu hàng của quân Nhật. [1]

Cùng các tàu chiến khác thuộc Đội hộ tống 14, Austin rời Guam vào ngày 12 tháng 10 để quay trở về San Pedro, California, và được điều động dưới quyền Tư lệnh Tiền phương Biển phía Tây từ ngày 17 tháng 11, chuẩn bị để ngừng hoạt động. Nó được cho xuất biên chế tại Xưởng hải quân Long Beach, Los Angeles vào ngày 21 tháng 12, 1945 và được đưa về Hạm đội Dự bị Thái Bình Dương. Tên nó được cho rút khỏi danh sách Đăng bạ Hải quân vào ngày 8 tháng 1, 1946 và công việc tháo dỡ tại Xưởng hải quân Long Beach hoàn tất vào ngày 9 tháng 1, 1947. [1]


Contents

A large portion of Austin's early musical heritage began in the German Beer Gardens and Halls in the late 1800s, in places such as Scholz's Garden and Hall (the hall later to become Saengerrunde Hall) and further up the road at Dessau Hall. Dessau Hall peaked in the 1940s and 1950s with acts as diverse as Glenn Miller, Hank Williams, and Elvis Presley.

Other major venues for country music included Big Gil's on South Congress and The Skyline on North Lamar. Local singer/yodeler Kenneth Threadgill opened Threadgill's in 1933 on North Lamar, a venue that later hosted Folk/Country jams where Janis Joplin participated in her early days. On the East Side of town, which historically had a rich culture of African American heritage and influence, other music venues such as the Victory Grill, Charlie's Playhouse, Big Mary's, Ernie's Chicken Shack, and Doris Miller Auditorium featured local and touring acts. These destinations, which were part of the "chitlin circuit" featuring big bands, jazz and blues, became famous for later hosting musical legends including Duke Ellington, Ray Charles, Bobby Bland, B.B. King, Ike Turner and Tina Turner.

In 1964, the Broken Spoke, opened featuring country acts such as Bob Wills, Ernest Tubb, and the young Willie Nelson. The late-1960s and 1970s saw the country music popularized by Willie Nelson and others being joined by a host of other music brought by the more liberal inhabitants, who migrated to Austin during these two decades. Specifically, Roky Erickson and his 13th Floor Elevators helped bring in this psychedelic era.

In the 1960s in Austin, Texas, legendary music venues included the Vulcan Gas Company and the Armadillo World Headquarters-and musical talent like Janis Joplin, the 13th Floor Elevators, and, later, Stevie Ray Vaughan. Austin was also home to a large New Left activist movement, one of the earliest underground papers, The Rag, and graphic artists like creator Gilbert Shelton, underground comix pioneer Jack Jackson (Jaxon), and surrealist armadillo artist Jim Franklin. [3] Austin was home to the Vulcan Gas Company that featured headliners such as the 13th Floor Elevators, (Johnny and Edgar) Winter brothers, and Shiva's Headband.

The Vulcan morphed into the Armadillo World Headquarters in 1970 and for more than ten years featured music of all genres, from Bruce Springsteen to Bette Midler, as well as local ballet, blues and jazz. The artwork from this establishment was a part of the Austin scene and the Armadillo became the Austin city animal. Songs such as Gary P. Nunn's "London Homesick Blues" (which includes in the chorus "I want to go home with the armadillo") made this a staple of Austin. The artist who began the Armadillo logo was Jim Franklin, who is still working today.

"Austin music" in its modern form emerged in 1972 when "a new form of country music exploded on the scene that turned its back on Nashville and embraced the counterculture". [1] Eddie Wilson had opened the Armadillo World Headquarters music venue in 1970, alternating country and rock music shows, [4] but in 1972, Willie Nelson left Nashville and moved to Austin, following others including Michael Martin Murphey, Marcia Ball, Steve Earle, Gary P. Nunn, Jerry Jeff Walker, Ray Wylie Hubbard, and Waylon Jennings.

Willie Nelson's audiences at the Armadillo included both hippies and rednecks. [5] On New Year's Eve, Austin's local KOKE.FM radio station switched to a new format geared to the mixed crowds first called "country rock", and later "progressive country".

By November of that year, the first pilot for the iconic Austin City Limits was being filmed with Willie. Billboard Magazine named KOKE “the most innovative radio station in the country" and Austin had a national reputation thanks largely to the reporting of Rolling Stone stringer Chet Flippo, who seemed to get a dispatch from the Armadillo into every issue." [1]

In the following years, Austin gained a reputation as a place where struggling musicians could launch their careers in front of receptive audiences, at informal live venues. A major influence during this time was Clifford Antone and the namesake blues club he founded in 1975, at the age of 25. Antone's located on Austin's 6th Street fostered the careers of a number of musicians, including Stevie Ray Vaughan.

Liberty Lunch was a live-music venue in Austin and during its heyday in the late 1970s and 1980s featured all kinds of music, including reggae and ska, punk, indie, country and rock. The venue was forced to close to make way for Austin's downtown redevelopment in the late 1990s. Since then, Liberty Lunch has attained a legendary status in the history of Austin music. Now-defunct Armadillo World Headquarters has attained a similar status.

Austin's live music scene has experienced a resurgence in the past few years after losing some of its best loved venues (Liberty Lunch, Armadillo and others), a host of new clubs have risen up to continue Austin's rich live music heritage. However, The Hole in the Wall, open since 1974 and a live music staple that lent a corner and then finally a stage to Doug Sahm and Blaze Foley, is still operating. Places such as the Skylark Lounge, Stubb's, Ginny's Little Longhorn, and a list of others have also become a stalwart of a new generation of live music venues throughout the city.

The punk/new wave era in Austin began in earnest in 1978. The Club Foot played an important role in hosting many of the local punk/new wave acts. The city's first two rock/new wave bands, the Skunks and the Violators, made their debut at a University-area club called Raul's in February.

The explosive show by the Sex Pistols in San Antonio the previous month helped build toward an excited reception for local purveyors of the style. [6] The Skunks' lineup consisted of Jesse Sublett on bass and vocals, Eddie Munoz on guitar and Bill Blackmon on drums. The Violators featured Kathy Valentine (later of The Go-Go's), Carla Olson (later of the Textones), Marilyn Dean and Sublett on bass. The Violators were short-lived, as all the members except for Sublett moved to LA the following year. Margaret Moser, of the Austin Chronicle, later wrote that "The Skunks put Austin on the rock n' roll map." [7] Another influential band that led the punk scene in Austin was the Big Boys.

Austin became one of the important stops on every tour of important punk/new wave acts. Many of these bands, such as the Police, Joe Jackson, Blondie and Talking Heads, played at the Armadillo. A number of them, including the Clash, Elvis Costello and Blondie, would make appearances at gigs by the Skunks and take the opportunity to jam with the band. [7] [8]

The 1980s and 1990s also helped shape Austin's music scene. Waterloo Records, which has been voted the best independent record store in the country and hosts live in-store shows, first opened in 1982. Austinite Stevie Ray Vaughan won a Grammy in 1990 for best contemporary blues album. After tragically dying in a helicopter crash, he was memorialized with a statue on the shores of Austin's Lady Bird Lake. Additionally in 1991, [9] Austin city leaders named Austin, "The Live Music Capital of the World", because of the number of live music venues.

Visitors and Austinites alike may notice the 10-foot guitars standing on the sides of the city's streets. In 2006, Gibson Guitar brought Guitar Town to Austin, placing 35 of these giant guitars around the city.

The Austin Music Foundation is one of several Austin groups that help independent artists further their music careers. Assisting musicians with medical needs are the Simms Foundation and Health Alliance for Austin Musicians (HAAM). Promotion, preservation and education is the mission of the Austin Blues Society, formed in 2006 by Kaz Kazanoff and other blues community notables.

Helping to promote the $1 billion music industry in the city is the Austin Music Office. A department of the Austin Convention & Visitors Bureau, the Austin Music Office offers creative, personalized assistance in booking live music, discounted Austin Compilation CDs and mini-guides to the city's live music scene, assistance with utilization of live music venues for off-site events, and guidance with local music attractions and creation of music tours. [10]

The PBS live music television show Austin City Limits began in 1974 [11] and has featured, as of 2005 [update] , over 500 artists of various genres, including rock, folk, country, bluegrass and zydeco. Part responsible for Austin's reputation as a live music hub, the show is broadcast worldwide and stands as the longest running music television program ever. On February 26, 2011, ACL held its first taping in its new purpose-built Moody Theater and studio in downtown Austin's W Austin Hotel and Residences. Despite a seating capacity of over 2,700, audiences will be limited to around 800 (the original total seating capacity of the old studio). The additional seating capacity will be used for the ACL Live concert series at the venue.

Austin was also home to the Austin Music Network (AMN), which broadcast from 1994 to 2005. AMN, featured on cable channel 15, proclaimed itself to be the only non-profit independent music television channel, and its programming was mostly music videos or recorded live sessions, interspersed with presenters. Although all musical tastes were broadcast, AMN emphasized non-mainstream music such as indie, punk, blues, country and jazz.

Channel 15 was a 24-hour music channel now run by Music and Entertainment Television (M*E). M*E launched October 1, 2005 and was broadcast to Austin and the 44 surrounding cities. M*E was a regional network dedicated to showcasing and providing television exposure for regional artists as well as the hundreds of touring groups that make up the vibrant Texas live music scene. Supporting established artists and promoting and discovering new talent is a priority. M*E represented different musical genres and areas of the arts community with numerous original programs highlighting everything from filmmakers to art galleries, and musicians to the ballet. In addition, M*E's mostly music line-up, spotlighted live performance footage, concept music videos as well as biographies, reviews, restaurant tours and more. [12]

Austin is the home of South by Southwest (SXSW), an annual film, music and interactive conference and festival, and the expanding number of fringe events that take place during the festival, at venues all over town. In the fall, Austin hosts the Austin City Limits Music Festival (ACL) and the Fun Fun Fun Fest.

In the spring, the long-running Old Settler's Music Festival takes place at the Salt Lick Pavilion & Camp Ben McCulloch just outside the city. Every summer, Austin City Limits Radio puts on a series of free blues shows in Zilker Park entitled "Blues on the Green. [13] "

Also in the summer, the City of Austin Parks and Recreation Department holds the Hillside Summer Concert Series music festival, throughout the month of July. This is held at the Pan American Recreation Center. This festival features popular local and national Tejano and Latin music performers. Jason Rubio, of Austin's Best DJs, was the first DJ to perform at the festival, in 2014.

Numerous other music festivals occur year-round. Other annual festivals include the "Keep Austin Weird Festival [14] " and the Heart of Texas Quadruple Bypass Music Festival a.k.a. The Texas Rockfest.

Austin is home to other large annual festivals including:

  • Carnaval Brasileiro
  • Urban Music Festival
  • Texas Wine and Food Festival
  • Chaos in Tejas
  • Art City Austin
  • Pachanga Festival
  • Batfest
  • First Night Austin
  • Waterloo Music Festival

The Austin Chronicle, Visit Austin, [15] Do512, and Phosphene Productions offer information on the most common venues that host local bands.

Below is a short list of notable venues:

  • The Amsterdam (closed)
  • Angel's (closed)
  • Artz Rib House (closed)
  • Aus-Tex Lounge (closed)
  • Austin Music Hall (closed)
  • B. D. Riley's (new location)
  • The Backyard
  • Beauty Bar (closed)
  • Beauty Ballroom (closed)
  • Beerland [16]
  • The Black Cat Lounge (closed)
  • The Blackheart (closed)
  • The Broken Spoke [16]
  • The Broken Neck (closed)
  • C-Boy's Heart & Soul
  • Cactus Cafe (UT campus)
  • Café Mundi (closed)
  • Carlos 'n Charlie's (closed)
  • The Carousel Lounge
  • Cedar Street Courtyard
  • Chances (closed)
  • Cheer Up Charlies
  • Club De Ville (closed)
  • Come and Take It Live
  • The Continental Club
  • Dirty Dog Bar (formerly The Metro)
  • Donn's Depot
  • Ego's
  • Elephant Room [16]
  • Elysium Night Club
  • Emo's East [16]
  • Empire Control Room and Garage
  • Evangeline Café
  • Flamingo Cantina
  • Flipnotics (closed)
  • The Frank Erwin Center
  • Friends
  • Geraldine's
  • The Ghost Room (closed)
  • Green Mesquite
  • Guero's
  • Headhunters (closed)
  • The Highball
  • Hill's Cafe (closed)
  • Hole in the Wall
  • Hotel Vegas/The Volstead
  • Icenhauer's
  • Jovita's (closed)
  • La Zona Rosa (closed) (closed)
  • The Little Longhorn Saloon
  • Lovejoy's (closed)
  • Lucky Lounge (closed)
  • Maggie Mae's
  • The Mohawk (formerly The Caucus Club)
  • Momo's (closed)
  • ACL Live at the Moody Theater
  • Mulligan's (closed)
  • Nasty's (closed)
  • Nuno's (closed)
  • Nutty Brown Café
  • One-2-One Bar
  • The Oaks (closed)
  • One World Theater
  • The Parish
  • The Parlor
  • Plush (closed)
  • Poodies
  • Radio Room (closed)
  • Red 7 (now Barracuda)
  • Red Eyed Fly (closed)
  • Red Fez (closed) (closed)
  • Reed's Jazz Club (closed)
  • Room 710 (closed)
  • Ruta Maya International Headquarters (closed)
  • The Sahara Lounge
  • Saxon Pub
  • Scoot Inn
  • Skinny's Ballroom (closed)
  • Skylark Lounge
  • Shady Grove (closed)
  • Shooters
  • Steamboat (closed)
  • Speakeasy
  • Spider House Cafe
  • Stubb's BBQ [16]
  • Swan Dive
  • TC's (closed)
  • Tellers
  • Threadgill's (closed)
  • 311 Club (closed)
  • Trophy's (closed)
  • The White Horse

In addition to the usual restaurant/bar venues listed above, Austin offers live music in unexpected places as well. These unique venues include:


The Research University

UT’s earliest faculty leaders had gambled that a move to Texas, then little more than a wilderness, would be good. By the early-to-mid 20th century, the campus was roamed by intellectual giants like historian Walter Webb, folklorists J. Frank Dobie and Americo Paredes, and Nobel laureate biologist Hermann Muller.

In 1929, the Association of American Universities confirmed that UT was indeed a university of the first class when the AAU invited UT into membership. In Texas, only three universities are AAU members, and UT was the first by more than 50 years.

Since then, Congresswoman Barbara Jordan, Maya scholar Linda Schele, and Nobel laureates physicist Steven Weinberg and chemist Ilya Prigogine have further burnished the UT faculty’s global reputation.

Today, UT receives about $600 million a year for research, much of it from federal sources, led by the Department of Defense. UT does “big science.” It has built some of the world’s fastest computers and is a charter member of a consortium building the world’s largest telescope.

FROM TOP-LEFT: Historian Walter Webb, folklorists J. Frank Dobie and Americo Paredes, and Nobel laureate biologist Hermann Muller. Congresswoman Barbara Jordan and Maya scholar Linda Schele. Nobel laureates physicist Steven Weinberg and chemist Ilya Prigogine. One of the world’s fastest supercomputers at UT’s Texas Advanced Computing Center.


The Austin 7 and the Beginnings of Jaguar

One of the most famous of all the coachbuilt versions of the Austin 7 were those built by Sir William Lyons and his partner William Walmsley. Together Lyons and Walmsley started the Swallow Sidecar Company in 1922. Their sidecar business flourished and they moved into a bigger building financed by Walmsley’s father.

This was timely as they were established in their new premises around the time the Austin 7 made its debut and William Lyons was particularly keen to get into the business of car manufacture. He managed to obtain an Austin 7 rolling chassis via a dealer in Bolton on which to construct the coachwork of the first Swallow car. The deal to obtain the Austin 7 chassis was done without Austin’s approval so it was a bit of an “under the counter” job. But it enabled them to get started.

William Lyons got Swallow Sidecar’s only professional coachbuilder, Cyril Holland, to design the coachwork for the Austin 7. Holland had joined the company in 1926 and was known as the “Wood Butcher”. He was a draftsman and he was able to translate William Lyons’ sketches into proper drawings for the Austin 7 based coachwork.

The first version was completed in 1927 and shown to Austin, who specified changes they thought necessary to ensure the bodywork met their standards. With the design approved the car was shown to London dealer Henlys who placed an order for 500 cars in two seater and in four seater saloon style. The cars sold for £175 and with their artistic style and eye catching color schemes became a sought after item.

The Swallow style coachwork on the Austin 7 chassis became increasingly popular and William Lyons could see he had moved a significant step closer to achieving his goal of becoming a car manufacturer. The company decided to move to Coventry to be more ideally placed to both expand, and to achieve William Lyons’ vision.

William Lyons took out a stand at the 1929 London Motor Show shortly after having moved the company to their new Holbrook Lane, Coventry premises. That year he expanded his model line-up to include cars built not only on the Austin 7 chassis, but also on chassis by Standard, Swift, and Fiat. By this time the company was named the Swallow Coachbuilding Company, and after WW2 the name was changed to Jaguar.


USS Oklahoma Pearl Harbor History

The USS Oklahoma (BB-37) was among the largest casualties of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.

On December 7th, 1941, a total of 429 crew died when the USS Oklahoma (BB-37) capsized and sunk on Battleship Row after being struck by several bombs and torpedoes during the Japanese attack. Most of the battleships that were recovered after Pearl Harbor were able to be salvaged and return to duty. But, not the USS Oklahoma. She was too damaged and was eventually stripped of her remaining armaments and superstructure before being sold for scrap in 1946.

Learn about the Pearl Harbor history with these photos of the USS Oklahoma Battleship:

The USS Oklahoma battleship was based at Pearl Harbor from December 29, 1937 for patrols and exercises, and only twice returned to the mainland.

The USS Oklahoma took three torpedo hits almost immediately after the first Japanese bombs fell. As she began to capsize, two more torpedoes struck home.

Within 12 minutes after the attack began, she had rolled over until halted by her masts touching bottom, her starboard side above water, and a part of her keel exposed.

429 of her officers and enlisted men were killed or missing. One of those killed—Father Aloysius Schmitt—was the first American chaplain of any faith to die in World War II.

Julio DeCastro, a Hawaiian civilian yard worker, organized a team that saved 32 Oklahoma sailors.

Some of those who died later had ships named after them such as Ensign John England for whom USS England (DE-635) and USS England (DLG-22) are named. The USS Austin (DE-15) was named for Chief Carpenter John Arnold Austin who was also posthumously awarded the Navy Cross for his actions during the attack. Two Medals of Honor, three Navy and Marine Corps Medals and one Navy Cross were awarded to sailors who served on board the Oklahoma during the attack.

In 2003, the U.S. Navy recovered part of the mast of the Oklahoma from the bottom of Pearl Harbor. In 2007, it was flown to Tinker Air Force Base in Oklahoma, then delivered to War Memorial Park in Muskogee, Oklahoma for permanent display.

On December 7, 2007, the 66th anniversary of the attack on Pearl Harbor, a memorial for the 429 crew members who were killed in the attack was dedicated on Ford Island, just outside the entrance to where the Missouri is docked as a museum. The Missouri is moored where the Oklahoma was moored when she was sunk.

Pearl Harbor Warbirds offers the best Hawai‘i flight adventure tours available. Be immersed in the details of the infamous attack on Pearl Harbor and soar above the important sites that played a part in the “Day of Infamy.” Relive history as you retrace the steps of the Army and Navy airmen in the days following the bombing. Fly on some of the same routes the Japanese attackers used into the airfields at Wheeler, Kāne‘ohe and Bellows. There are many air tours in Hawai‘i, but only one warbird airplane flight. Located in Honolulu, Hawai‘i Pearl Harbor Warbirds provides a personal historical experience making it one of the best O‘ahu attractions.

Experience an immersive two hour adventure that allows you to relive history as a Naval Aviator and fly Pearl Harbor like it was on December 10th, 1941. Learn more about the Admiral’s Warbird Adventure.

USS Arizona Battleship Pearl Harbor History

Built for and by the United States Navy, the USS Arizona Battleship (BB-39) was built&hellip

USS California Battleship Pearl Harbor History

USS California Battleship (BB-44) was the fifth ship of the United States Navy named in&hellip

USS Cassin Destroyer Pearl Harbor History

The USS Cassin Destroyer (DD-372) was decommissioned and destroyed in the Japanese attack on Pearl&hellip


What Students Can Expect in ACC History Courses

The History Department welcomes you to our courses. We have an outstanding faculty and you will find that many of your classmates are also outstanding students. With a collaborative effort on the part of BOTH faculty member and student, your experience with us should be most productive and rewarding.

Students registering for History courses at Austin Community College need to be cognizant of the fact that the requirements and expectations for those courses may be higher than those for some other courses in the College. Our courses are intellectually challenging and require that the student is both academically and socially prepared for college-level work. Successful completion of our courses requires a student commit a significant amount of time, effort, and personal responsibility.

The following is a summary of some of the requirements that are typical for a History course at Austin Community College. By providing you with this information, we hope you will be better able to assess your readiness to enroll in these courses.

1. All ACC college-level History courses presume that the student has successfully completed the basic high school U.S. History, Economics and American Government courses. All HIST 1301 and 1302 sections are taught moving forward from that base of knowledge. Thus, students are expected to already have a prior knowledge of the fundamentals of U.S. History, the Constitution, function and structure of the U.S. and state governments, and basic economic concepts including tariffs, the Federal Reserve, inflation, depression, and supply and demand. Students who do not have this prior knowledge and experience may find the courses more difficult.

2. Each History course includes a substantial reading component of approximately 500 to 700 pages of material. Students will be expected to be familiar with the material covered in each daily assignment and to have read the appropriate sections of the text PRIOR to attending class. The textbooks used in the classes are written at the 14+ grade reading level. Therefore, unless you have reading skills equivalent to these requirements, you may find the courses most demanding.

3. In all classes, some type of writing assignment is a requirement for successfully completing the course. Many classes include essay questions on each exam. In addition, many classes require research papers, analytical book reviews, a family history, film reviews, and/or thought piece assignments as a substantial portion of the final grade. These assignments will be graded for form (grammar, spelling, and punctuation) as well as content. If you do not possess these necessary writing skills, we recommend you postpone taking History courses until after you have completed ENGL 1301.

4. The normal mode of instruction is by the lecture method, supplemented in many cases by PowerPoint, video, and internet clips. The student has a responsibility to come to class prepared and able to take notes based on the reading assignment, class presentation, or lecture.

5. All History courses use behavioral learning objectives to assist the student in identifying the most important aspects of the material. These learning objectives are usually contained in the course syllabus or in a separate “Study Guide.” They are not word-for-word identical to the test questions nor do they by themselves give the answers to test questions in advance. Rather, they highlight the salient topics and point the student to the relevant material that may appear on the test from both the lecture and the textbook.

6. Each instructor has attendance policies and class behavior policies to which the student must adhere. These include attending class regularly, arriving on time and staying for the entire class, regardless of other school activities and responsibilities, preparing for class by doing the required reading and assignments, and being respectful of fellow classmates and the faculty member. Any computers or electronic devices used during class time are to be used for class purposes in accordance with the instructor’s directions. All cell phones are to be turned off prior to class beginning and are not to be used during class time.

7. Since most college courses usually meet only two times per week (in some cases only once each week), the pace of each class may be more intense than what students experienced in high school where classes met five times a week. Students should be especially careful not to overload themselves by enrolling in more classes than they have the time in which to adequately study for the courses.

8. These are college courses and all students enrolled in such courses will be treated as college students regardless of the location at which the class meets. All students are protected by the Family Education Rights and Privacy Act of 1974. In compliance with this Act, instructors will not discuss student grades, academic progress, or class attendance and participation with a student’s parents, spouse, or significant other, unless the student is present.

9. Students enrolling in Distance Learning courses will need maturity, ability, and self-discipline to successfully complete the requirements. The student will be required to do the same amount of work and the same quality of work as students enrolling in the in-class sections. Distance Learning courses are designed for mature and capable students endowed with a great degree of self-discipline and responsibility. There are many very fine students who find that their preferred learning style is classroom lecture and participation and that pedagogy better prepares them for exams. If you learn better via visual and audio means, then a classroom section will better fit your needs. Also, Distance Learning courses rely very heavily on multiple-choice tests. If you feel you are more skilled at taking essay exams, you might well consider enrolling in an in-class section.

In conclusion, we hope that sharing these expectations will result in a very successful and satisfying experience in your ACC History courses. Please do not hesitate to contact us if you have any questions.


Everything Austin, Texas

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Whatever you think the story is. that's the story, right there.

Scholz Garten in Austin circa 1900. Opened in 1866 and one of the oldest businesses in Texas. from @tracesoftexas on Twitter

Old Austin Tales: The Rise and Fall of Old Duval - 1880-1920

Well it's Juneteenth again and today I want to share with yɺll a very special Juneteenth story about an Austin family named Hancock, some of whom were formerly enslaved people. It's a long one but it's got dramatic family secrets to be revealed. It's a success story of a sort. So grab your tldr goggles and have a beverage handy. I'm just going to get right into it.

You might be familiar with the street named Hancock Ln. off Burnet Road. That street was named for a local judge active in the late 19th century by the name of John Hancock. The route goes back to at least the 1880s when it led to the Hancock family farm which encompassed much of the surrounding area. George and John Hancock were brothers from Alabama who were some of the first successful merchants in Austin in the 1840s. John was also a lawyer who quickly became a District Judge at the age of 26 after a few years in town. Both had additional experience running cotton farms. They were very successful but they were also slave owners from the antebellum south. However, John had a bit of a progressive streak in him concerning his slaves, and he let them all but run the entire farm operation to themselves. He had enough money to buy out other farms next door to his farm and was able to expand and incorporate the lots into one very large farmstead. One place he bought out, a log cabin farmstead built around 1850, survives today off of W. 49th Street at 4810 Sinclair Ave. This was where many of the Hancock slaves lived before and immediately after emancipation.

After word of the original Juneteenth in 1865 filtered up to Austin newspapers from Galveston, the former slaves of John Hancock learned they were free. They gradually left their former masters farm and within a few years were able to buy farms of their own in what is today the northern part of Austin spread out around Duval Rd. It wasn't called Duval Road back then but it did lead to the old village of Duval, around where the railroad tracks and the road meet today. Come to find out, many of the former Hancock family slaves, who chose to keep the last name Hancock after emancipation, lived in the same area. We know this today due to extensive research done by contractors for TxDot during a series of archeological digs in the late 1980s for the eventual building of today's intersection of Parmer Lane and MoPac. They did excavations on what was the farm of one Rubin Hancock, who lived at that location with his family for more than 50 years.

For quite a few years now this Texas Beyond History site has provided some great photos and details of this archeological investigation I'm talking about. Allow me to quote a bit for more backstory:

In an area now overrun by the busy interchange of Loop 1 and Parmer Lane in north Austin lie the remnants of what was once a thriving community of freed African-American slaves. Prominent in that community were Rubin and Elizabeth Hancock who, after emancipation, bought land, established a farm, and raised a family. Their story—and that of their descendents and neighbors—has been brought to life through archeological and historical investigations.

Rubin Hancock, his wife, Elizabeth, and many of their family members, were slaves of the prominent Austin judge, John Hancock. Little is known for certain about their early life, other than that they were all born into slavery—Rubin in Alabama and Elizabeth in Tennessee—during the 1840s. Although Texas did not recognize slave marriages (which otherwise would have resulted in written records), it is known that the two were married, or committed as life partners, before they gained their freedom. More is known about the life and philosophies of the judge. Despite his reliance on slavery, Judge Hancock was adamantly opposed to Texas' secession from the Union. After being elected to the state legislature in 1860 as a Unionist, he was removed from office when he refused to swear allegiance to the Confederacy.

The 1860 Census entry for Judge Hancock notes his ownership of 15 slaves. Although none were individually listed, it is likely that Rubin Hancock and his brothers Orange, Salem, and Peyton were among them at that time. It is also likely, according to family histories, that the four men were half-brothers of the judge. Their considerable duties would have included clearing land, planting, and working a 300-acre dairy farm maintaining cattle and other livestock on the judge's extensive ranch lands and building a variety of structures.

The end of the Civil War in 1865 brought emancipation for slaves, announced in Texas on June 19, 1865. Sometime after that, Rubin and his three brothers bought land in the area north of Austin, making them landowners at a time when many others—Whites and African-Americans alike—were sharecroppers and tenants. With few resources available beyond their own strength and determination— and the possible assistance of Rubin's former master, the judge—Rubin and Elizabeth Hancock established a productive farm, raised a family of five children, and helped establish a small but stable community of African-American farmers.

Known as Duval, the community was bound by family ties and a strong church, St. Stephen's Missionary Baptist, in which social gatherings, school classes for African-American children, and worship services were held. The coming of the A&NW railroad through the Hancock farm in 1881 meant an influx of families into the area and the new recreational resort of Summers Grove (later Waters Park). It also provided a means of transport for farm products, such as cotton from Rubin Hancock's fields, to nearby markets.

At the bottom of the page they cite a report as source I've been trying to get my hands on for a long time now:


Reflecting on the Civil War

Below Republic Hill is a wide meadow called Confederate Field. With its neat rows of small white monuments, it resembles the Arlington National Cemetery near Washington, D.C. Buried here are hundreds of Confederate veterans and widows who spent the last years of their lives in dedicated Austin care homes. None died in combat.

The State Cemetery was once the resting place for several Union veterans, as well, but as part of national transference, they were moved to the San Antonio National Cemetery. Only one Union soldier remains in the northwest quadrant. His family, in fact, insisted that he be moved there from Oakwood, the city's oldest graveyard.

You have plenty of time and visual impetus to contemplate the tragedy of the Civil War and its causes. The cemetery is a battlefield of subtle clashes. Perhaps the most elaborate monument, for instance, is dedicated to Confederate Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston, yet he fought for the South for only a few weeks at the end of his career and before his death at Shiloh. Meanwhile, the tallest monument in the park belongs to Edmund J. Davis, a Unionist governor of Texas.

Scholars and politicians tend to agree that monuments to Confederates like the ones found in this park belong here, where individuals are buried, rather than in the public square, like the UT campus or the Capitol, where they were often erected decades after the Civil War as celebrations of the "Lost Cause" and white supremacy.

Next week, I'll catch up on the late-20th-century and early-21st-century figures. Given the historical context, you can guess that there will be more to say next time about women and people of color. And I'll share how someone you know might qualify to join the ranks of those already entombed here.


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