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This is a very serious question for me and I hope this will be treated with seriousness. One can look up on the NASA website the biography of, for example, Debus who was a member of the SS. There is zero mention of this or even clear indication that he fought against the USA during WW2. It is my understanding that he is among former SS who have buildings and awards named for them. The removal of Confederate statues of people who I think are clearly less reprehensible and much further removed in time from the present. What prospect is there of NASA removing the names of these fascists from such awards, etc. or at least giving an accurate account of their nazi past?
That's not NASA's duty, and tbh it's not needed. All these people were heavily vetted and cleared of war crimes before being granted US citizenship and coming to work at NACA (later NASA).
They're not war criminals in the same way that your average German soldier returning from the front in 1945 was not a war criminal.
Did some do things they in hindsight probably weren't proud of during the war? No doubt. But then again so do most people who end up involved in armed conflict.
Not everyone who was an SS man was a lunatic mindless killing machine revelling in slaughtering innocent victims in the most gruesome ways. In fact most of them weren't, they were just normal people recruited in a massive machine of an organisation that provided them with jobs that were generally better paid, with better facilities, and less threat of ending up conscripted to the eastern front, than other opportunities. It was similar to taking a job at the CIA now, or at MIT or Berkeley university. All have done things that in hindsight weren't nice (including medical experiments on human beings… ), but we're not calling for the public erasure of the achievements of anyone who worked there while those things were going on.
Katherine Johnson, one of the history-making, barrier-breaking NASA mathematicians depicted in "Hidden Figures," died Monday, the administrator of NASA said.
"Johnson helped our nation enlarge the frontiers of space even as she made huge strides that also opened doors for women and people of color in the universal human quest to explore space," NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine said in a statement.
In a tweet, he called Johnson "an American hero."
Johnson was portrayed by Taraji P. Henson in the Oscar-nominated 2016 film about trailblazing black women whose work at NASA was integral during the space race.
The film, based on a book by the same name, also starred Octavia Spencer as the mathematician Dorothy Vaughan and Janelle Monáe as the engineer Mary Jackson.
The work of the women altered the country's history but their names were largely unknown until the movie received acclaim. Jackson died in 2005, and Vaughan died in 2008.
Johnson began working at NASA's predecessor, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) in 1953 at the Langley Laboratory in Virginia.
She said her greatest contribution to space exploration was making "the calculations that helped sync Project Apollo's Lunar Lander with the moon-orbiting Command and Service Module." In other words, helping to put men on the moon in 1969.
She was also the first woman in the Flight Research Division to receive credit as an author of a research report for her work with Ted Skopinski on detailing the equations describing an orbital spaceflight.
How An Ex-Nazi Helped Desegregate Alabama
Most people know Wernher von Braun as the designer of the V-2 rocket, the director of the Marshall Space Flight Center, and the ex-Nazi who helped the US get to the moon with Apollo 11. While the media has highlighted his controversial past in recent decades, few people know about his role in supporting civil rights for black people and his advocacy in ending segregation in Alabama. While there could be multiple reasons for the position that he took in the 1950s and 1960s, his efforts contributed positively to the divisive atmosphere of Alabama in the civil rights era.
The Whole Bushel
After the US Office of Special Investigations published a press release in 1984 concerning its research about possible German war criminals among the scientists, technicians, and engineers recruited during Operation Paperclip (after World War II), the reputation of the late Wernher von Braun was at its nadir. Although there had been concerns about his past, neither he, nor NASA ever spoke extensively about his life under the Third Reich.
Most of the public knew only that he was a central player in rocket development in Germany and that he was responsible for the design of the V-2 rockets that rained down on London and Antwerp. Now there was clear evidence that concentration camp slave laborers worked at the Mittelwerk V-2 construction plant.
It is still unclear how much von Braun knew about the horrific conditions, and whether he protested the use of the slave labor. There was also some question of his membership in the Nazi party and the SS however, evidence shows that the Nazis likely pressured him to join both.
This unpleasant history might have weighed on his conscience when Operation Paperclip transported him to the Deep South to help work on rocket engineering projects for his new employer, the US government. In 1950, the government settled von Braun, the other German technicians, and their families in Huntsville, Alabama. Although there was less racial tension in Huntsville than in other parts of Alabama, it was still a segregated state.
The German engineers, however, didn’t pay too much attention to the racial codes once they settled into the community. Although the state segregated the public tennis courts, they played tennis with the black residents. They even visited black clubs to see local and traveling jazz players.
A 1952 presentation at a local white high school showed how aloof von Braun still was about the racial climate. He recruited seven black college students from Alabama A&M to encourage interest among the high school students in science and engineering. Some of these high school students had said disparaging things (or worse) to their black neighbors. Predictably, the presentation wasn’t as successful as von Braun desired, and most of the students tuned the program out. Still, von Braun wanted to make a difference in Alabama’s youth, no matter their ethnicity.
Ten years later, however, the progress of civil rights and desegregation was still slow in Alabama. The federal government was looking at the situation, and they weren’t pleased. Because of the state’s racial reputation, many professionals, black and white, were hesitant to work at the Marshall Space Flight Center. NASA lobbied von Braun, who was the center director, and said that there needed to be increased effort to recruit and retain black professionals, otherwise, NASA might move the center out of the state.
Von Braun explained to his superiors that unfortunately there were not enough scientifically qualified black people in the area. Many black engineers from other states were also hesitant to move to Alabama. Thus, NASA said that the Marshall Space Flight Center would have to grow its talent. Von Braun then helped historically black colleges write grant proposals that would secure funding for a stronger curriculum. Then he met with local contractors to make sure that black applicants had equal opportunity for openings. Finally, NASA decided that there would be a summer jobs program because it might help transition individuals into later full-time positions. Although von Braun didn’t initiate these programs, he readily took to fulfilling NASA’s goals, despite opposition from segregationists.
Von Braun knew that integrated employment at his facility couldn’t be the only solution to the simmering racial tensions. Therefore, he began an even more aggressive campaign for civil rights by the mid-1960s. He spoke to the local Chamber of Commerce, pressing it to conform to the new civil rights laws. Later, he took the stage at Miles College, when the school began construction of a new physics building. Miles College had taken the lead in protests and boycotts in Birmingham, an even more racially volatile city, so it was impressive that this national figure was supporting this small black college. Later, back in Huntsville, he pushed for expanded voting rights. He even attacked Governor Wallace’s defiance of desegregation.
Why did von Braun take the lead on such a controversial issue? While some believe that his past actions in Nazi Germany weighed on his conscience, others believe that his conversion to evangelical Christianity immediately following the war was influencing him. During the 1960s, he met with Billy Graham and Martin Luther King Jr., and he became increasingly more religious up to his death in 1977. Whatever the reason, he affected the direction of rocketry and the direction of civil rights in Alabama.
Working in the United States
In 1945, von Braun — as well as his brother, Magnus, and von Braun&aposs entire rocketry team — surrendered willingly to American troops. Signing a one-year contract with the U.S. Army, von Braun was flown to America, where he eventually became technical director of the U.S. Army Ordnance Guided Missile Project in Alabama in 1952. There, working alongside Dr. William H. Pickering, former director of JPL, and Dr. James A. van Allen, he was an integral part of the team that successfully launched the first American artificial earth satellite, Explorer I on January 31, 1958. Leading the Army&aposs Redstone Arsenal team, von Braun was responsible for the first stage Redstone Juno-I rocket that launched Explorer I. In addition, under his direction, the Jupiter Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile (IRBM), and the Pershing missile were developed. During this period, Von Braunਊlso become a legal U.S. citizen in 1955.
As director of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration&aposs Marshall Space Flight Center, from 1960 to 1970, von Braun developed the Saturn IB and Saturn V space vehicles, as well as the Saturn I rocket for the Apollo 8 moon orbit in 1969. Each launch was successful. Because he was good looking and outgoing, von Braun was occasionally the butt of both humorous and serious verbal attacks regarding the notion of former German scientists working for the U.S. space program.
In 1972, von Braun became vice president at the aerospace company Fairchild Industries, Inc. He founded the National Space Institute, aimed at gaining public support for space activities, a few years later.
NASA Scientists Dispute Climate Change Activism
Fed up with NASA’s activist stance toward climate change, 49 former NASA astronauts, scientists and engineers sent a letter to NASA Administrator Charles Bolden last week asking the agency to “refrain from including unproven and unsupported remarks in its future releases and websites on this subject.”
The group includes seven Apollo astronauts and two former directors of NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston, who admonished the agency for neglecting thousands of years of empirical evidence that calls the CO2 climate change theory into question.
The disgruntled scientists charge that NASA is relying too heavily on complex climate models that have proven scientifically inadequate in predicting climate only one or two decades in advance, say nothing of a hundred years.
Pointing out that “the science is clearly NOT settled,” the letter criticizes the Goddard Institute For Space Studies (GISS) especially, where director Jim Hansen and climatologist Gavin Schmidt have been outspoken advocates for action.
“With hundreds of well-known climate scientists and tens of thousands of other scientists publicly declaring their disbelief in the catastrophic forecasts, coming particularly from the GISS leadership,” the letter states, “it is clear that the science is NOT settled.”
“The unbridled advocacy of CO2 being the major cause of climate change is unbecoming of NASA’s history of making an objective assessment of all available scientific data prior to making decisions or public statements.”
Full text of the letter:
March 28, 2012
The Honorable Charles Bolden, Jr.
Washington, D.C. 20546-0001
We, the undersigned, respectfully request that NASA and the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) refrain from including unproven remarks in public releases and websites. We believe the claims by NASA and GISS, that man-made carbon dioxide is having a catastrophic impact on global climate change are not substantiated, especially when considering thousands of years of empirical data. With hundreds of well-known climate scientists and tens of thousands of other scientists publicly declaring their disbelief in the catastrophic forecasts, coming particularly from the GISS leadership, it is clear that the science is NOT settled.
The unbridled advocacy of CO2 being the major cause of climate change is unbecoming of NASA’s history of making an objective assessment of all available scientific data prior to making decisions or public statements.
As former NASA employees, we feel that NASA’s advocacy of an extreme position, prior to a thorough study of the possible overwhelming impact of natural climate drivers is inappropriate. We request that NASA refrain from including unproven and unsupported remarks in its future releases and websites on this subject. At risk is damage to the exemplary reputation of NASA, NASA’s current or former scientists and employees, and even the reputation of science itself.
For additional information regarding the science behind our concern, we recommend that you contact Harrison Schmitt or Walter Cunningham, or others they can recommend to you.
Thank you for considering this request.
CC: Mr. John Grunsfeld, Associate Administrator for Science
CC: Ass Mr. Chris Scolese, Director, Goddard Space Flight Center
Ref: Letter to NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, dated 3-26-12, regarding a request for NASA to refrain from making unsubstantiated claims that human produced CO2 is having a catastrophic impact on climate change.
/s/ Jack Barneburg, Jack – JSC, Space Shuttle Structures, Engineering Directorate, 34 years
/s/ Larry Bell– JSC, Mgr. Crew Systems Div., Engineering Directorate, 32 years
/s/ Dr. Donald Bogard – JSC, Principal Investigator, Science Directorate, 41 years
/s/ Jerry C. Bostick – JSC, Principal Investigator, Science Directorate, 23 years
/s/ Dr. Phillip K. Chapman – JSC, Scientist – astronaut, 5 years
/s/ Michael F. Collins, JSC, Chief, Flight Design and Dynamics Division, MOD, 41 years
/s/ Dr. Kenneth Cox – JSC, Chief Flight Dynamics Div., Engr. Directorate, 40 years
/s/ Walter Cunningham – JSC, Astronaut, Apollo 7, 8 years
/s/ Dr. Donald M. Curry – JSC, Mgr. Shuttle Leading Edge, Thermal Protection Sys., Engr. Dir., 44 years
/s/ Leroy Day – Hdq. Deputy Director, Space Shuttle Program, 19 years
/s/ Dr. Henry P. Decell, Jr. – JSC, Chief, Theory & Analysis Office, 5 years
/s/Charles F. Deiterich – JSC, Mgr., Flight Operations Integration, MOD, 30 years
/s/ Dr. Harold Doiron – JSC, Chairman, Shuttle Pogo Prevention Panel, 16 years
/s/ Charles Duke – JSC, Astronaut, Apollo 16, 10 years
/s/ Anita Gale
/s/ Grace Germany – JSC, Program Analyst, 35 years
/s/ Ed Gibson – JSC, Astronaut Skylab 4, 14 years
/s/ Richard Gordon – JSC, Astronaut, Gemini Xi, Apollo 12, 9 years
/s/ Gerald C. Griffin – JSC, Apollo Flight Director, and Director of Johnson Space Center, 22 years
/s/ Thomas M. Grubbs – JSC, Chief, Aircraft Maintenance and Engineering Branch, 31 years
/s/ Thomas J. Harmon
/s/ David W. Heath – JSC, Reentry Specialist, MOD, 30 years
/s/ Miguel A. Hernandez, Jr. – JSC, Flight crew training and operations, 3 years
/s/ James R. Roundtree – JSC Branch Chief, 26 years
/s/ Enoch Jones – JSC, Mgr. SE&I, Shuttle Program Office, 26 years
/s/ Dr. Joseph Kerwin – JSC, Astronaut, Skylab 2, Director of Space and Life Sciences , 22 years
/s/ Jack Knight – JSC, Chief, Advanced Operations and Development Division, MOD, 40 years
/s/ Dr. Christopher C. Kraft– JSC, Apollo Flight Director and Director of Johnson Space Center, 24 years
/s/ Paul C. Kramer – JSC, Ass.t for Planning Aeroscience and Flight Mechanics Div., Egr. Dir., 34 years
/s/ Alex (Skip) Larsen
/s/ Dr. Lubert Leger – JSC, Ass’t. Chief Materials Division, Engr. Directorate, 30 years
/s/ Dr. Humbolt C. Mandell – JSC, Mgr. Shuttle Program Control and Advance Programs, 40 years
/s/ Donald K. McCutchen – JSC, Project Engineer – Space Shuttle and ISS Program Offices, 33 years
/s/ Thomas L. (Tom) Moser – Hdq. Dep. Assoc. Admin. & Director, Space Station Program, 28 years
/s/ Dr. George Mueller – Hdq., Assoc. Adm., Office of Space Flight, 6 years
/s/ Tom Ohesorge
/s/ James Peacock – JSC, Apollo and Shuttle Program Office, 21 years
/s/ Richard McFarland – JSC, Mgr. Motion Simulators, 28 years
/s/ Joseph E. Rogers – JSC, Chief, Structures and Dynamics Branch, Engr. Directorate,40 years
/s/ Bernard J. Rosenbaum – JSC, Chief Engineer, Propulsion and Power Division, Engr. Dir., 48 years
/s/ Dr. Harrison (Jack) Schmitt – JSC, Astronaut Apollo 17, 10 years
/s/ Gerard C. Shows – JSC, Asst. Manager, Quality Assurance, 30 years
/s/ Kenneth Suit – JSC, Ass’t Mgr., Systems Integration, Space Shuttle, 37 years
/s/ Robert F. Thompson – JSC, Program Manager, Space Shuttle, 44 years/s/ Frank Van Renesselaer – Hdq., Mgr. Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters, 15 years
/s/ Dr. James Visentine – JSC Materials Branch, Engineering Directorate, 30 years
/s/ Manfred (Dutch) von Ehrenfried – JSC, Flight Controller Mercury, Gemini & Apollo, MOD, 10 years
/s/ George Weisskopf – JSC, Avionics Systems Division, Engineering Dir., 40 years
/s/ Al Worden – JSC, Astronaut, Apollo 15, 9 years
/s/ Thomas (Tom) Wysmuller – JSC, Meteorologist, 5 years
Thanks to William Sellers, Gordon Pratt, David Swineford, Stephen DiStaso, George Fitzsimmons and Thomas McHart for these links
Wernher von Braun: History’s most controversial figure?
Pivotal to the history of spaceflight, von Braun’s Nazi past makes him incredibly difficult to talk about.
On Thursday, September 20, 1945, Wernher von Braun arrived at Fort Strong. The small military site on the northern tip of Boston Harbour’s Long Island was the processing point for Project Paperclip, the government programme under which hundreds of German scientists were brought into America. Von Braun filled out his paperwork that day as the inventor of the Nazi V-2 rocket, a member of the Nazi party, and a member of the SS who could be linked to the deaths of thousands of concentration camp prisoners. Two and a half decades later on Wednesday, July 16, 1969, von Braun stood in the firing room at Kennedy Spaceflight Centre and watched another of his rockets, the Saturn V, take the Apollo 11 crew to the Moon.
That he was responsible for both the deadly Nazi V-2 and NASA’s majestic Saturn V makes Wernher von Braun a controversial historical figure. Some hold that his participation in the Nazi war effort necessitates classifying him as a villain. But while his actions during the Second World War were monstrous, he wasn’t motivated by some inherent evil or personal belief in Nazi ideology. Von Braun was motivated by his childhood obsession with spaceflight, a somewhat uncritical patriotism, and a naive grasp of the ramifications of his actions in creating one of the War’s deadliest weapons. How can we treat someone who brought technological triumph to two nations, in one case as a purveyor of death and destruction and in the other a bringer of wonder and inspiration?
The von Brauns
Wernher von Braun’s lineage can be traced back to the Junkers, a social class of nobles that dominated the Prussian military officer corps, the landowning elite, and offices of civil service in the 19th and early 20th centuries. High social standing was inherited or acquired through marriage, a legacy that typically gave Junkers a narrow and self-interested world view. Von Braun’s father Magnus was a civil servant, a career that ensured the family had a certain quality of life. Raised in this privileged environment with a sense of his Junker heritage shaped von Braun at an early age into a proud and sometimes arrogant young man.
Wernher von Braun’s love affair with space, which was at odds with his upbringing, began when his mother Emmy gave him a telescope for his thirteenth birthday. Looking up at the Moon and the stars, he was seized with a desire to travel into space launching rockets and landing spacecraft, men, and possibly himself on the Moon became his life’s goal. He devoured books about space travel and worked out mission plans of his own.
This obsession with spaceflight took a toll on his academics, as von Braun only applied himself to the subjects that would help him launch rockets. He excelled beyond his professors in maths and physics, eventually teaching classes and tutoring his peers. His grades in other courses, meanwhile, were largely satisfactory. Nevertheless, he was skipped ahead halfway through the twelfth grade to graduate high school a year early.
Rocketry, opportunity, and the Second World War
It was around this time that von Braun got his first hands-on experience with rockets as a member of the Verein fur Raumschiffahrt (VfR), an amateur rocket society. The VfR’s activities caught the German Army’s attention, and when a group of officers went to watch a launch in the spring of 1932, it was von Braun who stood out. Army Ordnance officer Walter Dornberger saw promise in the young engineer and offered him the opportunity to develop his rockets and explore their possible military applications on the Army’s dime. Von Braun accepted Dornberger’s offer and began his doctoral work in physics and engineering at the University of Berlin later that year.
In 1933, Adolf Hitler came to power. Still deeply engaged in his doctoral work, von Braun was only partially aware of the nationwide changes brought about by this new leadership. He was only 21 and by his own admission (albeit later in life) apolitical and somewhat disinterested in the world around him. He was patriotic, but rockets were his main concern.
Von Braun finished his dissertation in 1934. Titled “Design, Theoretical and Experimental Contributions to the Problem of the Liquid Fuel Rocket”, its contents were deemed so important to the future of Germany’s military that it was hidden under a new title, “Regarding Combustion Experiments”, and transferred to the Army Ordnance’s custody. Von Braun was just 22. Not long after, he began working for the Army on a variety of rocket programmes, among them the ballistic missile the Nazi Propaganda Ministry would eventually call Vergeltungswaffe-Zwei, Vengeance Weapon 2 or V-2.
The Army increased funding for the V-2 programme throughout the 1930s. By the time the War broke out in 1939, von Braun was running a sizable operation at a dedicated rocket facility at Peenemunde. Sitting on the northern German island of Usedom, Peenemunde afforded von Braun’s team the space to build, test, and launch their rockets harmlessly into the Baltic Sea.
Whatever celebrity von Braun achieve in America, it couldn’t erase his Nazi past.
But the V-2s that were launched towards London beginning in 1944 weren’t built at Peenemunde. These rockets were built in underground factories near the central German town of Nordhausen – most famously at Mittelwerk, where construction was done by prisoners from the nearby Dora-Mittelbau concentration camp. Over 60,000 prisoners lived, worked, and died in the damp underground tunnels at Mittelwerk. Some succumbed to disease and malnutrition. Some were worked to death. Others were hanged publicly in group executions. The death rate rose so high that crematoriums became a necessity.
Von Braun visited Mittelwerk at least once he was given a tour of the facility by SS guards in late 1943 when prisoners were still excavating tunnels. But just how this and any subsequent trips affected the young rocketeer is open to speculation. There are no records of von Braun planning or overseeing operations at Mittelwerk, even from a distance. It’s possible that his boyhood disinterest in politics helped him either ignore or repress what he knew about Mittelwerk, or perhaps he was able to justify the deplorable conditions in his rockets’ factory as a necessity of war. Years later, in America, von Braun called the V-2 his contribution to Germany’s wartime arsenal. It was what any citizen was expected to do.
During his tenure developing the V-2, von Braun joined the Nazi party and became a member of the SS. He also held on to his dream of landing men on the Moon. One night in early March of 1944, he drank too much at a party and spoke too freely in what he thought was just casual conversation. He told fellow party goers that he foresaw the war ending badly for Germany and added that all he’d ever wanted to do with his rockets was launch them into space. It was an admission akin to treason, which was a crime punishable by death. Von Braun was arrested weeks later, and while he was never incarcerated, it was his first indication that he wouldn’t be safe in his home country when the war ended.
Von Braun was attracted by the opportunities America promised and suspected that the US military would support his continued research in rocketry. He had already decided that he wanted to surrender to and build rockets for America when he heard that Hitler was dead on May 1, 1945. Hiding with his fellow rocket engineers in Bavaria at the time, von Braun elected an emissary from the group, his younger brother Magnus, to go, find and surrender to American soldiers. Magnus did. By nightfall on May 2, Wernher von Braun was in the hands of American soldiers and within months the US government made him the offer he’d hoped for: military funding to develop an Americanised version of the V-2.
Finding fame in America
After working in relative obscurity in New Mexico for four years, von Braun and other former Peenemunders brought overseas under Project Paperclip were moved to the US Army’s Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama. On March 22, 1952, von Braun introduced the American public to his vision of space exploration in the pages of Collier’s Magazine. In a series of articles published over two years, he described how men would live and work in huge doughnut-shaped orbital space stations before setting off on missions to the Moon. He imagined spacecraft launching and gliding back to Earth daily. And he described, in detail, the rockets he would build to launch such missions. Americans met the man behind this compelling future on March 9, 1955 when von Braun appeared in the first episode of Walt Disney’s Tomorrowland TV series. Viewers saw von Braun’s vision come to life with stunning animation.
Von Braun brought the same vision to NASA when the agency absorbed his rocket group in 1960. Throughout the decade, he was pictured shaking hands with presidents, smiling with astronauts, and posing in front of the massive rockets that would launch them into space. And while NASA’s path to the Moon ultimately deviated from von Braun’s vision, he nevertheless achieved his boyhood dream in 1969.
Whatever celebrity von Braun achieve in America, it couldn’t erase his Nazi past. But in the same way he covered or ignored his association with Mittelwerk, American leaders and administrators suppressed or deliberately misrepresented his past and emphasised his contributions to the nation’s space programme and space exploration generally. He wasn’t ostracised as an ex-Nazi he was celebrated as the creator of the Saturn V.
Times of war
The circumstances surrounding von Braun’s two greatest rocket triumphs were very different. The V-2 was built by prison labour and launched as an offensive weapon while the Saturn V was built by American aviation companies and launched with manned spacecraft to the Moon. But there’s nevertheless a strong parallel: both rockets were built and launched in times of war. In both cases, von Braun followed the money and developed the technology he could to defeat an enemy, Allied soldiers in Europe and the Soviet Union in space. In neither case did he undertake his work for strong ideological reasons. He had no apparent moral quandary or crisis of conscience aligning himself with the Nazi party in the 1930s, nor did he labour over the decision to turn his back on his homeland and immigrate to America in 1945. The constant thread running through von Braun’s life during both wars is his fixation on spaceflight.
The legacy von Braun has left behind will always be split between those who classify him as a villain and those who classify him as a visionary. Both might be true. He certainly exploited horrifying means to pursue his goals, but was unquestionably one of the most influential rocket engineers and spaceflight visionaries of the 20th century.
Amy Shira Teitel has an academic background in the history of science and now works as a freelance science writer specialising in spaceflight history. She maintains her own blog, Vintage Space, and contributes regularly to Discovery News, Scientific American, Motherboard, DVICE.
Era 2: First Launch-Mercury-Gemini-Apollo (1957-1970s)
Geraldyn ("Jerrie") M. Cobb was born on March 5, 1931 in Norman, Oklahoma. She earned her private pilot’s license at the age of 17 while still a student at Oklahoma City Classen High School. A year later, she would add a commercial pilot’s license to her name. Cobb was also a part of the “Mercury 13” – the first women astronaut trainees – who underwent rigorous physical and mental testing in preparation for space flight, until the program was canceled by NASA.
Katherine Johnson was born in White Sulphur Springs, West Virginia on August 26, 1918. At the age of 15, she began attending West Virginia State College, eventually taking every math course the college offered. Several professors took Johnson under their wings, including W.W. Schiefflin Claytor, the third African American to receive a PhD in math in the United States. Johnson went on to become an integral mathematician at NASA, calculating, by hand, the trajectory for Alan Shepard, the first American to fly into space on May 5, 1961. Even after NASA began using electronic computers, John Glenn requested that she personally recheck the calculations made by the new electronic computers before his flight aboard Friendship 7 – the mission on which he became the first American to orbit the Earth. She continued to work at NASA until 1986, combining her math talent with electronic computer skills. Her calculations proved critical to the success of the Apollo Moon landing program and the country’s journey into space.
Dorothy Vaughan was an American mathematician who worked at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), which was the predecessor agency to NASA. First a high school math teacher, she later began working at Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory in 1943 in electronic computing. In 1951, she became the head of the West Area Computers, a group composed entirely of black, female mathematicians, including notable members like Katherine Johnson.
Mary Sherman Morgan was born on November 4, 1921 in Ray, North Dakota. In the early 1950s, Morgan was the only female analyst among 900 rocket scientists at North American Aviation. She was also one of the few without a college degree. She is credited with the invention of the liquid fuel Hydyne in 1957, which powered the Jupiter-C rocket that boosted the United States' first satellite, Explorer 1.
Wally Funk was born on February 1, 1939 in Las Vegas, New Mexico. In 1961, she volunteered for the “Women in Space” Program, becoming one of the “Mercury 13” – the first women astronaut trainees. Funk, like the other participants in the program, was put through rigorous physical and mental testing. Despite passing her tests and qualifying for space travel, the program was canceled before the women were to undergo their last test.
Dorothy “Dottie” Lee was a mathematician for NACA’s Langley Aeronautical Laboratory. As a project engineer, she was responsible for design, trajectory, and stability analysis of spacecraft. While NACA became NASA, she continued her work predicting the performance of the Apollo heat shield. The Orion capsule that is being built today uses an Apollo style heat shield based on predictions she calculated.
Jeanne Crews is an American engineer and one of the first female engineers to work at Johnson Space Center. At JSC, she worked as an aeronautical engineer in the Flight Crew Support Division, Experiments Systems Division, and Solar System Exploration Division. As an engineer, one of the largest problems she tackled was space debris, creating a multishock shield to protect vehicles and astronauts. She later took a management role in the Space and Life Sciences Directorate. She has been decorated with medals from both JSC and NASA Headquarters.
Margaret Hamilton was born in Paoli, Indiana on August 17, 1936. She played a critical role in the development of the flight software for NASA’s Apollo program. As a computer scientist leading the Software Engineering Division of the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory, she helped develop the Apollo program’s guidance system. For her work during this period, Hamilton has been credited with creating and popularizing the concept of software engineering. In 2016, Hamilton was honored with the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Barack Obama.
Several months after moving to Peenemünde in 1937, von Braun was told to join the National Socialist Party. In this August 1938 photo, he is wearing the swastika badge. From the archives at the U. S. Space & Rocket Center, Huntsville, AL.]
Six weeks before the historic, December 1968 Apollo 8 mission to orbit the Moon, the director of NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, Wernher von Braun, received an unpleasant surprise. A West German court asked him to testify in the trial of three former SS men from the Mittelbau-Dora concentration camp, which had supplied slave labor for the production of the V-2 ballistic missile. Von Braun had been the technical director of that project and visited the associated Mittelwerk factory a dozen times. Now the head of the center that managed the gigantic Saturn V Moon rocket, he was afraid the attendant publicity would damage his reputation and that of NASA. He tried to beg off, but in the end spoke to the judge and the court at the West German consulate in New Orleans on February 7, 1969. An excerpt from his press interview afterward appears near the beginning of Chasing the Moon, part 3. He denied any personal responsibility and put as much distance as he could between his Peenemünde rocket development center and the Mittelwerk complex.
As his long-time press person, Ed Buckbee, notes in Chasing the Moon, von Braun had received few such inquiries. He and his employer from 1945 to 1960, the U.S. Army, had effectively neutralized most of the uncomfortable questions surrounding his former service for Adolf Hitler. In autobiographical articles and press interviews, he stuck to the line that he was an apolitical scientist who only wanted to go into space. He built missiles used against Allied cities because it was his national duty in wartime. He admitted that he had been a member of the National Socialist Party but labeled it nominal and necessary to protect his career in a totalitarian society. If he mentioned concentration-camp labor, it was only obliquely, while assigning all blame to the SS. In fact, very little information about the camp story was available to the public, in part because the Army classified much of it. The military did the same with von Braun’s SS officer rank and the Nazi records of the more than one hundred associates who had come to the U.S. with him. The one thing he was willing to talk about was his March 1944 Gestapo arrest. He allegedly made drunken remarks at a party about Germany’s likely defeat and his preference for building a “spaceship.” It made him look like a victim of the Nazis, rather than a perpetrator.
Von Braun died prematurely of cancer at age 65 in 1977 and thus missed the storm that broke out seven years later. One of his closest associates, Arthur Rudolph, voluntarily went back to Germany in 1984 rather than contest a denaturalization hearing over his role as production manager in the underground plant. The Justice Department released records relating to Rudolph, von Braun and the Mittelbau-Dora camp. Von Braun’s SS membership first became widely known then, although Communist East Germany had tried in the 1960s, with little success in the West, to publicize it. Thanks to the work of investigative journalists in the 1980s and scholars in the 1990s, everything about his Nazi record, and those of associates, came out. Belatedly, many became aware of the deaths of thousands of prisoners in the V-2 program and the potential implication of von Braun, and a few key associates, in those crimes.
What do we know about his Nazi record? Born in 1912, von Braun grew up in a very conservative, nationalist aristocratic family, but became obsessed with space travel in his teens. Driven by a dream to someday lead an expedition to the Moon, he took the unusual course for a Prussian baron (as he actually was) to pursue an engineering career. In late 1932 the German Army offered to finance his doctoral dissertation if he worked in secret on liquid-propellant rocketry. Shortly thereafter, Hitler became Chancellor. Von Braun was a right-wing nationalist by upbringing but seems to have taken little interest in Nazi ideology or anti-Semitism. As money began flowing into rearmament and eventually into the rocket program, he became more enthusiastic about the regime. In 1933-34, he was a member of an SS riding group in Berlin, but National Socialist organizations were then pressing non-member students to participate in paramilitary activities. In 1937, now the technical director at age 25 of the new Army rocket center at Peenemünde on the Baltic, he received a letter asking him to join the Party. Since it required little commitment, and it might damage his career to say no, he went along.
In spring 1940, an SS man approached him with an invitation from Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler to rejoin the SS as an officer. He asked his military superior, Walter Dornberger, who advised him that it was politically inconvenient for the missile program if he turned it down. Lacking any convictions that would make him say no, von Braun once again went along, although he probably could have made excuses to get out of it. By 1943 he had ascended to the rank of Sturmbannführer (major), thanks to Himmler’s appreciation for his rocket work.
An A-4 (V-2) ballistic missile being prepared for launch in 1942/43. It was the technological accomplishment that made von Braun’s career, but also drew him into deeper complicity with Nazi crimes. Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum (NASM 77-14261)
In October 1942, the V-2 made its first successful flight. Hitler, motivated by a worsening war situation, soon approved production despite the missile’s technological immaturity. The problem was where to get the labor when the Eastern Front’s insatiable demands made German manpower scarce. As elsewhere in the war economy, the answer was the brutal exploitation of foreign workers and concentration-camp inmates. Thanks to Arthur Rudolph’s recommendation, an SS camp was founded at Peenemünde. In parallel, prisoners were brought to two other potential V-2 factory sites. But after a massive British air raid on Peenemünde in August 1943, Hitler and Himmler decided to concentrate manufacturing in an underground plant, leading to the founding of the Mittelwerk and the Dora camp. Von Braun had been out of the decision-making chain about camp laborers, but the new situation put him into direct contact with them and with decisions how to deploy them. He admitted to the West German court in 1969 that he had seen terrible conditions underground, although he never admitted seeing dead bodies or receiving sabotage reports that led to prisoner hangings. In summer 1944, he tried to help a French physicist prisoner, Charles Sadron, but he also talked to the commandant of Buchenwald concentration camp about transferring skilled prisoners to Mittelbau-Dora for a laboratory that he hoped Sadron would lead (Sadron refused). Some men were apparently transferred, which could further implicate him in crimes against humanity.
In the interim, the Gestapo really had arrested von Braun. He was freed by the intervention of Gen. Dornberger and Armaments Minister Albert Speer, who testified as to his indispensability for the V-2 program. The dangerous, ten-day arrest seems to have crystallized von Braun’s alienation from the Nazi regime and from Hitler, whom he had met four or five times. In my view, von Braun had sleepwalked into a Faustian bargain with the Nazis, who promised him all the money and power he wanted to build rockets, as long as they did it their way, for their purposes. He belatedly realized he was trapped, but he was still a imbued with Nazi ideas and was loyal to the Army and his superiors. Late in the war he was seen more often in SS uniform, which provided him some protection against Nazi true believers as Germany headed toward catastrophic defeat. He was lucky to be salvaged from that situation by surrendering to the U.S. Army in the Alps on May 2, 1945, along with others.
Von Braun with his American superiors, Maj. James Hammill (left) and Col. Holger Toftoy, at Fort Bliss, outside El Paso, Texas, probably in 1945/46. Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum (NASM A-4075).]
Thanks to American military interest in V-2 technology, he arrived in the U.S. in September and was quickly sent to Fort Bliss outside El Paso, Texas, to prepare for the arrival of his team. Their journey was part of a larger program to import German engineers, scientists and technicians that is best known as Project Paperclip. Due to a growing Cold War, that soon became a program of permanent immigration, which required that the dubious Nazi records of some, like von Braun, be covered up. In 1950, the Army moved his group to Huntsville as part of the consolidation and buildup of its missile work. That was where his parallel career as a space advocate took off.
Von Braun was indeed driven by a dream of spaceflight, but he was also a German nationalist who almost effortlessly became an American patriot. In both cases he had no problem building missiles for his country. He was doubtlessly an opportunist, although not one, as Tom Lehrer’s song parody would have it, completely without principles. He was, in my view, the most important rocket engineer and space promoter of the twentieth century, but his legacy will forever be tarnished by his service to a murderous regime.
Michael J. Neufeld
Michael J. Neufeld, a Senior Curator at the National Air and Space Museum, is the author of The Rocket and the Reich (1995), Von Braun: Dreamer of Space, Engineer of War (2007), and Spaceflight: A Concise History (2018), among other works.
Mr. Tornado is the remarkable story of the man whose groundbreaking work in research and applied science saved thousands of lives and helped Americans prepare for and respond to dangerous weather phenomena.
The Polio Crusade
The story of the polio crusade pays tribute to a time when Americans banded together to conquer a terrible disease. The medical breakthrough saved countless lives and had a pervasive impact on American philanthropy that continues to be felt today.
Explore the life and times of L. Frank Baum, creator of the beloved The Wonderful Wizard of Oz.
The Occult Roots of NASA and the Ongoing Fraud
In my lexicon, NASA stands for: Never A Straight Answer. If you ever happened to start poking around NASA and the Apollo moon landings, a keen eye and open mind will bring you to the conclusion that it was a staged hoax. In fact the pure hard scientific evidence and analysis irrevocably reveals the fraud among many. Think about that, the greatest feat accomplished by man is an elaborate Hollywood production that cost the American taxpayer a cool 30 billion. Imagine what James Cameron could create with a budget like that.
But to be quite frank, it pisses me off more that NASA has built up a money-sucking colossus composed of lies, hoaxes and misinformation. The American taxpayer derives virtually no benefit from NASA’S existence and alleged scientific contributions derived by supposed explorations and experiments in space. Absent of any other sources to verify, we have had to prostate ourselves to the so-called “experts” despite irrefutable evidence that NASA is nothing more than an elaborate financial embezzler and pseudosciencepeddler.
The focus of this first part of a series is based on a principle that is indefensible if you are caught. FRAUD VITIATES EVERYTHING IT TOUCHES!!
In short, once fraud is detected everything that sits upon it is now in question. Your credibility is shot! Who would disagree with the logic of found fraud destroys the validity of everything? It’s reasonable, predictable and has the power to instantly change the direction of one’s perception, even those that were held sacred. Fraud has no limits by those who engage in it and it’s been around along time. Do you think real fraudsters stop at just one fraud? Or do you think they keep going and going until they die or get caught? The answer is a simple one. Why would you ever stop lucrative fraudulent activity if you haven’t been caught? So the chance for systemic fraud once initial fraud is found becomes a virtual certainty.
To further muddy the waters, NASA was founded by Satanic worshiping occultists and black magicians. This is not idle rumor but fact. NASA is a Military-Hollywood-Pseudoscience-Satanic Cartel, whose true aim is to use taxpayer funding to promote and profit by developing and deploying pseudoscience technology and methodology. The first fraud in my opinion is the true origins of NASA and the cast of characters that had significant influence. Go to NASA and search for them and you’ll find whitewashed bios or no information available.
The predecessor to NASA was a young talented rocket scientist, Jack Parsons. Werner von Braun claimed it was the self-taught Parsons, not himself, who was the true father of the American space program for his contribution to the development of solid rocket fuel.
Jack’s childhood was one of solitude, loneliness, and wealth. He could sit in his room all day and read, never worrying about supporting his family or where his next meal was going to come from. He ferociously read Jules Verne, including his 1865 novel “From the Earth to the Moon,” and the new sci-fi magazine “Amazing Stories.” Soon, space wasn’t just what was above Jack’s head, it was a romantic obsession.
One day, Jack was getting pummeled at school when an older boy swooped in and put an end to the beating. That boy, Ed Foreman, would become Jack’s best friend into his adult years and an essential player in Jack’s rocket dreams. Ed and Jack whiled away days talking about the science-fiction books they were reading and, soon, began experimenting themselves.
Using Ed’s father’s engineering tools and resources and supplies Jack took from his part time job at the Hercules Powder Company, they built explosives. Teachers and Jack’s mother began worrying about him. But Ed and Jack continued to experiment.
In 1934, with Jack now 20 years old, the duo’s interest in rockets went from a child’s fantasy to an academic pursuit when, despite not being students there, they gained the support of the close-by California Institute of Technology (CalTech). Ed, Jack, and several members of CalTech’s community formed the GALCIT Rocket Research Group.
On Halloween 1936, the group performed their first motor test near the Devil’s Gate Dam in Pasadena. The motor exploded, but soon they became infamous on campus. They were called the “Suicide Squad” due to the danger and perceived craziness of their experiments, particularly as rocket technology was considered by many scientists at the time to be foolish and mere science fiction in terms of any practical use and development of the technology.
This “Suicide Squad” was the beginnings of the famed Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the institution responsible for the Mars Rover Landing and many other advancements in rocket and robotic sciences. Obviously Parsons was a real talent with a seemingly innate sense of propulsion and rocketry (a very nascent industry at the time) were coveted by the military industrial complex. His design and understanding of the chemical composition of liquid rocket fuels was considered without peer. Parsons cut a path as a dashing figure with a reputation as a rocket hot-shot and risk-taker. You would think all this scientific achievement would be enough for one person in one lifetime, but Parsons had a much loftier set of ambitions. He wanted to tear down the walls of time and space, and he had an entirely non-scientific set of ideas on how to do it.
The non-scientific set of ideas were steeped in the occult, satanism and black magic. Parsons “swore the Oath of the Abyss, having only the choice between madness, suicide, and that oath. (then) I took the oath of a Magister Templi, even the Oath of Antichrist before Frater 132, the Unknown God. And thus was I Antichrist loosed in the world and to this I am pledged, that the work of the Beast 666 shall be fulfilled.” Who knew it was so easy?
Apparently noting that Antichrist is only a few letters away from “anarchist,” the manifesto that follows is in large part an exhortation to “do what thou wilt” in most things bodily-fluid-drenched, economic and/or political. The goal of all these efforts, according to Metzger, was to bring on the Apocalypse, since in theory things can only get better from there.
By now you may be thinking “What a load of crap!” But the FBI, none too keen about the notion that Parsons’ taxpayer-funded salary might be supporting the Antichrist and the hastening of the Apocalypse, took it seriously enough to open an investigation. Documents recently released through the Freedom of Information act make up 130 pages of heavily redacted text in which G-Men try to make sense of Parsons’ religious beliefs and document his frequently careless handling of classified materials. Perhaps the Errol Flynn persona fitted Jack Parsons best. But truth be told, Jack Whiteside Parsons is best known for his occultists ideals, black magic and reverence to the satanic agenda.
But he had a secret life, which appeared totally at odds with his public one, and it came to further dominate his life as the ’40s progressed. Jack Parsons and his wife Helen had come into contact with the Agape lodge of the O.T.O. (Ordo Templi Orientis)international magical fraternity in Los Angeles in 1939, and had joined it in 1941. It was under the leadership of Wilfred Talbot Smith, a Britisher who had founded this particular lodge about a decade earlier, circa 1930.
Smith and Parsons’ wife hit it off nicely and he was soon not much in evidence around the house and the O.T.O. Gnostic Mass temple in the attic. This latter space was fully fitted out, and even had a copy of the Egyptian ‘Stele of Revealing,’ venerated by followers of the famous magician Aleister Crowley. It was the only such temple in the world at that time which was properly functioning.
Aleister Crowley (already a 33rd degree freemason) the world head of the O.T.O., took action that increased Parsons’ stature in the Order. Circa 1943-44, he convinced Smith, via a paper entitled ‘Is Smith a God?’ that astrological research had shown that Smith was not a man, but actually an incarnation of some deity. Taking the hint that Crowley wanted him out, the “god” went into private magical practice, eventually with reportedly rewarding results, remaining head of the lodge in name only.
Parsons had lost his wife to Smith, yet remained on good terms with her. He was kept busy by Order activities, one of the most important of which was the sending of money to Crowley, for both the old man’s minimal upkeep and the O.T.O. publishing fund. A good percentage came from Parsons’ own pocket.”
Crowley, who brought actual fame to the O.T.O. (which was already well-known in Masonic circles), was one of Parsons’ major inspirations in life. The elderly man’s accomplishments had been many: as a poet, publisher, mountain climber, chess master, and bisexual practitioner of sexual magic (or “Magick,” as he termed it).
Made famous by yellow journalists as the “Wickedest Man in the World,” he considered his central identity to be the “Great Beast 666″ as referred to in the book of “Revelation” in the Bible, though he was not leaning on that work particularly in his religious ideas.
According to most accounts, when Parsons’ father died (circa the early ’40s), Parsons inherited a mansion and coach-house at 1003 South Orange Grove Avenue in Pasadena, California. To the shock of the neighbors, the place became a haven for Bohemians and atheists, who were the sort of people to whom Parsons liked to rent out rooms.
The lodge headquarters was moved to this location, making use of two rooms in the house: the bedroom (which became a properly decorated temple), and a wood-paneled library dominated by an enormous portrait of Crowley. According to a story told by L. Sprague DeCamp (most recently appearing in the June 24, 1990 Los Angeles Times, p. A35), at one point the police — who had heard neighbors’ reports of a ritual in which a pregnant woman jumped nine times through a fire in the yard — came to investigate, but Parsons put them off by emphasizing his scientific credentials.
He was, they say, “the greatest humanitarian in history.”
But there was another side to this imaginative and intelligent man. And to understand Scientology, one must begin with L. Ron Hubbard.
In the late 1940s, Hubbard was broke and in debt. A struggling writer of science fiction and fantasy, he was forced to sell his typewriter for $28.50 to get by.
“I can still see Ron three-steps-at-a-time running up the stairs in around 1949 in order to borrow $30 from me to get out of town because he had a wife after him for alimony,”
-Recalled his former literary agent, Forrest J. Ackerman.
At one point, Hubbard was reduced to begging the Veterans Administration to let him keep a $51 over-payment of benefits. “I am nearly penniless,” wrote Hubbard, a former Navy lieutenant. Hubbard was mentally troubled, too. In late 1947, he asked the Veterans Administration to help him get psychiatric treatment.
“Toward the end of my (military) service,” Hubbard wrote to the VA, “I avoided out of pride any mental examinations, hoping that time would balance a mind which I had every reason to suppose was seriously affected.
“I cannot account for nor rise above long periods of moroseness and suicidal inclinations, and have newly come to realize that I must first triumph above this before I can hope to rehabilitate myself at all.”
In his most private moments, Hubbard wrote bizarre statements to himself in notebooks that would surface four decades later in Los Angeles Superior Court. “All men are your slaves,” he wrote in one. He wrote in another.
“You can be merciless whenever your will is crossed and you have the right to be merciless,”
Hubbard was troubled, restless and adrift in those little known years of his life. But he never lost confidence in his ability as a writer. He had made a living with words in the past and he could do it again. Before the financial and emotional problems that consumed him in the 1940s, Hubbard had achieved moderate success writing for a variety of dime-store pulp magazines. He specialized in shoot’em-up adventures, Westerns, mysteries, war stories and science fiction. He was a master sailor and glider pilot, with a reported penchant for eye-catching maneuvers.
Although Hubbard’s health and writing career foundered after the war, he remained a virtual factory of ideas. And his biggest was about to be born. Hubbard had long been fascinated with mental phenomena and the mysteries of life. He was an expert in hypnotism. During a 1948 gathering of science fiction buffs in Los Angeles, he hypnotized many of those in attendance, convincing one young man that he was cradling a tiny kangaroo in his hands.
Hubbard’s intense curiosity about the mind’s power led him into a friendship in 1946 with rocket fuel scientist John Whiteside Parsons. Parsons was a protege of British satanist Aleister Crowley and leader of a black magic group modeled after Crowley’s infamous occult lodge in England.
Hubbard also admired Crowley, and in a 1952 lecture described him as “my very good friend.” Parsons and Hubbard soon lived in the aging mansion on South Orange Grove Avenue in Pasadena.The estate was home to an odd mix of Bohemian artists, writers, scientists and occultists. A small domed temple supported by six stone columns stood in the back yard. Hubbard met his second wife, Sara Northrup, at the mansion. Although she was Parsons’ lover at the time, Hubbard was undeterred. He married Northrup before divorcing his first wife.Long before the 1960s counterculture, some residents of the estate smoked marijuana and embraced a philosophy of promiscuous, ritualistic sex.
Crowley biographers have written that Parsons and Hubbard practiced “sex magic.” As the biographers tell it, a robed Hubbard chanted incantations while Parsons and his wife-to-be, Cameron, engaged in sexual intercourse intended to produce a child with superior intellect and powers. The ceremony was said to span 11 consecutive nights.Hubbard and Parsons finally had a falling out over a sailboat sales venture that ended in a court dispute between the two.
In later years, Hubbard tried to distance himself from his embarrassing association with Parsons, who was a founder of a government rocket project at California Institute of Technology that later evolved into the famed Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Parsons died in 1952 when a chemical explosion ripped through his garage
Hubbard insisted that he had been working undercover for Naval Intelligence to break up black magic in America and to investigate links between the occultists and prominent scientists at the Parsons mansion. Hubbard said the mission was so successful that the house was razed and the black magic group was dispersed. But Parsons’ widow, Cameron, disputed Hubbard’s account in a brief interview with The Times. She said the two men “liked each other very much” and “felt they were ushering in a force that was going to change things.” And change things they did. L. Ron Hubbard went onto create the Church Of Scientology, a masterpiece of mind control.
The Church of Scientology is a vicious and dangerous cult that masquerades as a religion. Its purpose is to make money. It practices a variety of mind-control techniques on people lured into its midst to gain control over their money and their lives. Its aim is to take from them every penny that they have and can ever borrow and to also enslave them to further its wicked ends.
Jack Whiteside Parsons on the other hand was a founding member of Nasa’s Jet Propulsion Lab, with some crediting him as being one of the “fathers of rocketry” and others joking that JPL was actually Jack Parsons’ Laboratory, but you won’t find much about him on Nasa’s websites. Parsons’ legacy as an engineer and chemist has been somewhat overshadowed by his interest in the occult and, and has led to what some critics describe as a rewriting of the history books.
However strange Parsons was, it did not preclude NASA from naming a crater on the dark side of the moon after him. Of course one cannot actually see the dark side of the moon nor confirm that such a crater exists, how appropriate. “…America’s space program owes much to Parsons’ rocket design and innovations — and in 1972 the International Astronomical Union honored him by naming Parson’s Crater on the dark side of the moon. After co-founding the JPL — which his admirers referred to as “Jack Parsons’ Laboratory” — Parsons started Aerojet Corp., now the world’s largest rocket producer and manufacturer of solid-fuel boosters for space shuttles….”
Another enigma is Jack Parsons contribution to the occult design of the Pentagon.
 Parsons, who took the oath of the anti-Christ in 1949, contributed to the design of the Pentagon under subsequent CIA director John J. McCloy
It’s no coincidence that NASA has been erasing and trying to rewrite it’s true origins. The mighty pillars of scientific certainty that NASA supposedly sits upon are actually satanic black magicians of the occult. This is probably a small trivial fact that is omitted in today’s school curriculum.
NASA has sprouted from the likes of the self-acclaimed “wickedest man in the world” Aleister Crowley, Mass-Mind-Control-Black Magician-Satanist L. Ron Hubbard andUber-Occultist-Black Magician-Satanist Jack Whiteside Parsons to begin the early formation of NASA. In addition to the unholy trinity there were two more later additions to the NASA Dream Team, Werner von Braun and Walt Disney. All the elements were in place to create one of the greatest financial and theological frauds in human history-NASA
Parsons and Hubbard idolized Aleister Crowley and were avowed satanists. Taken all to together NASA certainly did not sprout from humble beginnings. L. Ron Hubbard said it best. “You don’t get rich writing science fiction, if you want to get rich start a religion” Fate is not without it’s ironies. NASA got rich because of science fiction and for many people NASA is a religion.
1. Jack Whiteside Parsons – Occultist, Black Magician, Satanist, Head of Ordo Templi Orientis California Agape Lodge
2. Aleister Crowley – 33rd degree freemason, Leader of Ordo Templi Orientis, Black Magician, Satanist, The Beast ‘666’
3. L.Ron Hubbard – Mass Mind Controller, Black Magician, Satanist, Founder of The Church Of Scientology Cult
4. Werner von Braun – Ex-NAZI director of the German V-2 Rocket program and recruited into the U.S. under Operation Paperclip. Quite likely he was the most normal of the bunch.
4. Walt Disney – Occultist, Mass Mind Controller, Black Magician, Illuminati-Pedophile, Freemason and founder of The Ordem DeMolay
As the capstone to the NASA Dream Team, the adoption of pseudoscience provided the template that makes the NASA hoaxsters rockets go up, up and away. NASA didn’t have to look far for a sterling example of pseudoscience. The Soviets had perfected the kraft of pseudoscience as both the U.S. and U.S.S.R. engaged in the “fake cold war“. The cold war was pre-engineered by the Khazarian-Rothschild-Zionist-Bankster Cabal(Khazarian Mafia) after world war ll and had financial control of both governments.
Not surprisingly, both countries went on a spending rampage and billions of taxpayer dollars were funneled into the mythical masonic space race with the Soviets. The father of pseudoscience was a man named Trofim Lysenko who worked under the Jesuit trained mass murderer Joseph Stalin. Lysenko eventually became the official scientific voice of Russia and no matter how absurd his assertions were, to disagree would mean a trip to the gulag. Pseudoscience is not science, but science and political science combined to generate revenues by creating false scientific dogma reinforced with repetitive brainwashing. NASA has studied Lysenkoism well and has deceived the world by their slight of hand. But thanks to the internet, we’ve had a chance to catch-up and actually analyze what we’ve been shown and told from the all-knowing portal to the stars — NASA.
Today’s incarnation of NASA is a Military Masonic Controlled Entity that acts as the sole gatekeeper to information about the cosmos and our place in it. To think NASA’s black magic and occult origins haven’t been refined by Freemasonry is certain naivete. If you are not familiar with secret societies click here.
Vast industries controlled by the Khazarian Mafia have been spawned that orbit around NASA and the military industrial complex. Take a small sampling of The Top Aerospace and Defense Contractors from 2014 and look up the major shareholders(investors.morningstar.com) and look for four institutions, Vanguard Group, BlackRock Advisors LLC, Fidelity or State Street Corp. Roughly 80% of the industry is owned by these Khazarian Rothschild subsidiaries. On top of that take a cursory look at the various investment funds and you’ll see the same four companies.
General Dynamics Corp, United Technologies Corp, are just a few you may be familiar with. No doubt, hundreds more contractors exist. The Masons of NASA take in billions of taxpayer dollars, only to redistribute it amongst the Kharzarian Rothschilds majority owned companies and subsidiaries in the military industrial complex.
The level of compartmentalization among these interconnected companies is so tight, everyone is on a need-to-know basis which means only the top of the structure knows the final desired outcome. Everyone else is virtually kept in the dark, just the way NASA likes it.
NASA constitutes the biggest “black hole” ever discovered created especially in regards to funding. NASA is the king of ‘black ops’ with technology and advanced military craft that civilians have no idea exist. Billions of dollars have been embezzled by NASA and are reallocated for other nefarious uses by the Khazarian Mafia. In return for our obedience and gullibility, we get a fake fairy-tale saga about the cosmos, directed and produced by Hollywood at a fraction of the actual cost. It’s certainly more profitable to fake-it than make-It. The line between Hollywood and NASA is virtually indistinguishable to the unwitting observer.
Disney — Vanguard, BlackRock & State Street Corp.
Hollywood has cashed in big-time and perpetuates the worship of NASA through the endless genre of space sci-fi movies. Don’t be surprised to find the same institutional majority shareholders of major Hollywood companies and subsidiaries such as Disney, Comcast, MGM, Time Warner, Dreamworks, Sony Entertaiment. Again, go toinvest.morningstar.com and look-up these companies. Vanguard Group, Fidelity, BlackRock LLC and State Street Corp. are majority shareholders, and thus Hollywood becomes a defacto propaganda machine for NASA. The Controlled Major Mass Media is also controlled by the Khazarian Mafia and hardly a day goes by without an article(s) written about the incredible exploits of NASA and it’s quest for life in the void of space. One problem, it’s all bullcrap!
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